Geography of the WorldDK
A guide to countries and continents in today's rapidly changing world.
- Clear, country-by-country layout makes this an ideal reference book for use at home and at school.
- Fact boxes provide at-a-glance information on each country's population, language, religion, government, currency, and more.
- More than 60 large-scale, three-dimensional maps, 900 superb photographs, and 500 detailed artworks, charts, and diagrams bring the countries of the world to life.
- Researched, authenticated, and updated by a team of specialists in human and physical geography and international affairs.
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A guide to countries and continents in today's rapidly changing world.
• Clear, country-by-country layout makes this an ideal reference book for use at home and at school.
• Fact boxes provide at-a-glance information on each country's population, language, religion, government, currency, and more.
• More than 60 large-scale, three-dimensional maps, 900 superb photographs, and 500 detailed artworks, charts, and diagrams bring the countries of the world to life.
• Researched, authenticated, and updated by a team of specialists in human and physical geography and international affairs.
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I am not a teacher, however I purchased this book in order to supplement my child's education at home. I was quite impressed with the layout of this book and how it is...
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I have always loved DK books. They are the most expressive and colorful learning book around. Most of them are written for children but as an adult, I totally love them....
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I really like this geography book. D K has done it again. I appreciate that the pages are not overloaded with information and pictures that make the page overwhelming. It...
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I saw this book in my dentist's office and I had to have it. It has very interesting data about different aspects of the countries of the world. Everyone should have a copy...
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I got this book to aid me in learning the countries of the world. This is perfect for that.
The book is divided into continents, then regions, then countries. Each...
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A very informative, well-planed book that I need to take the time to study in depth.
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Exhaustive and beautiful
Kenneth C. Jessen
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A well organized book covering the entire globe with many interesting facts about each country.
GEOGRAPHY WORLD FU AN LL D YR U E PD V AT ISE ED D OF THE THE ESSENTIAL FAMILY GUIDE TO GEOGRAPHY AND CULTURE GEOGRAPHY OF THE WORLD Chinese boy writing characters The Friday Mosque at Mopti in Mali Black pepper plant and peppercorns from the Pacific Islands Street scene in Tokyo, Japan Traditional house built by the Tswana people from Botswana High, windswept plains, called the altiplano, in Bolivia Aymará Indians from the altiplano in Bolivia A variety of different crops grown on small farms in Italy Wine and cheeses from Germany Copper from Namibia Street market in Lausanne, Switzerland UNITED KINGDOM PHILIPPINES ARGENTINA NEW ZEALAND CANADA BRUNEI PARAGUAY KAZAKHSTAN BAHAMAS SUDAN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CHINA JAPAN GEOGRAPHY BHUTAN OF THE ITALY SWEDEN RUSSIAN FEDERATION WORLD VENEZUELA PANAMA PORTUGAL GHANA CÔTE D’IVOIRE BELGIUM BRAZIL KENYA MEXICO SPAIN NORWAY IRAQ INDIA CHILE SAUDI ARABIA NETHERLANDS GERMANY JAMAICA FRANCE GREECE SOUTH AFRICA INDONESIA SENEGAL THAILAND AUSTRALIA AZERBAIJAN TUVALU KIRIBATI MALAYSIA MONGOLIA LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, and DELHI Senior Art Editor Rachael Foster Senior Editor Susan Peach Art Editors Marcus James, Tina Robinson, Gillian Shaw, Jane Tetzlaff Editors Marie Greenwood, Fran Jones, Nic Kynaston, Veronica Pennycook U.S. Editor Camela Decaire Deputy Art Director Miranda Kennedy Deputy Editorial Director Sophie Mitchell Senior DTP designer Mathew Birch DTP designer Almudena Díaz Cartography Jan Clark, Robin Giddings Picture research Rachel Leach, Jo Haddon Research Robert Graham Special photography Andy Crawford Production Catherine Semark, Louise Barratt Chief consultant Dr. David Green 2010 revised and updated edition Senior designer Spencer Holbrook Editor Steven Carton Production editor Andy Hilliard Consultants Dr. Kathy Baker, Professor Mark Blacksell, Dr. Tanya Bowyer-Bower, Dr. Robert Bradnock, Dr. Edward Brown, Dr. Brian Chalkley, Professor Roman Cybriwsky, Professor Dennis Dwyer, Professor Alan Gilbert, St. John Gould, Professor Ian Hamilton, Robert Headland, Dr. Michael Heffernan, Professor Eleanore Kofman, Keith Lye, Professor Robert Mason, Professor W.R. Mead, Professor William Morgan, Susan Murrell, Jenny Nemko, Dr. Rewi Newnham, Professor Robert Potter, Dr. Jonathan Rigg, Dr. David Simon, Dr. David Turnock, John Wright and Nicholas Awde, Dr. Ted Yates Authors Simon Adams, Anita Ganeri, Ann Kay Additional text by Ann Kramer, Claire Watts First published in the United States in 2006 This revised and updated paperback edition first published in 2010 by DK Publishing, Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2006 Dorling Kindersley Limited All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. Distributed by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-7566-1952-7 Color reproduction by Colourscan, Singapore Printed and bound by Toppan, Hong Kong Discover more at CONTENTS How to Use This Book 52 Cuba and Jamaica 10 The Physical World 54 12 Moving Continents The Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Haiti, and Dominican Republic 14 Climate and Vegetation 56 Lesser Antilles 16 World Population 58 Northern South America 18 The Political World 60 Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana 62 Colombia and Ecuador 64 Peru and Bolivia 66 Brazil 70 Southern South America 72 Uruguay, Paraguay, and Chile 74 Argentina 76 The Atlantic Ocean 78 EUROPE 80 Peoples of Europe 82 Scandinavia and Finland 83 Norway 84 Denmark and Sweden 86 Finland 87 The British Isles 8 20 NORTH AMERICA 22 Peoples of North America 24 Canada 30 United States of America 38 Mexico 40 42 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA Peoples of Central and South America 44 Central America and the Caribbean 88 United Kingdom 46 Guatemala and Belize 90 Ireland 48 Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua 91 The Low Countries 50 Costa Rica and Panama 92 Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg 94 Germany 136 Peoples of Asia II 97 France 138 Russian Federation 98 France, Monaco, and Andorra 144 Turkey and Cyprus 100 Spain and Portugal 146 The Middle East I 101 Spain 148 Syria and Lebanon 102 Portugal 150 Israel and Jordan 103 Italy 152 The Middle East II 104 Italy, Malta, Vatican City, and San Marino 154 Iraq and Iran 106 Switzerland and Austria 156 Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar 107 Switzerland and Liechtenstein 158 108 Austria United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen 109 Slovenia and Croatia 160 Central Asia 111 Belarus and the Baltic States 162 112 Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan 114 Central Europe 164 Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Afghanistan 116 Poland and Czech Republic 166 The Indian Subcontinent 118 Slovakia and Hungary 168 Pakistan and Bangladesh 120 Ukraine, Moldova, and the Caucasian Republics 170 India 172 Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan 174 East Asia 176 China 180 Taiwan and Mongolia 182 North Korea and South Korea 122 Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia 124 Southeast Europe 125 Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina 126 Macedonia and Albania 184 Japan 128 Romania and Bulgaria 188 Mainland Southeast Asia 130 Greece 190 Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) 192 Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos 194 Malaysia and Singapore 196 Maritime Southeast Asia 198 Indonesia, Brunei, and East Timor 200 The Philippines 202 The Indian Ocean 132 ASIA 134 Peoples of Asia I 250 Zimbabwe and Mozambique 252 South Africa, Swaziland, and Lesotho 254 AUSTRALASIA AND OCEANIA 256 Peoples of Australasia and Oceania 204 AFRICA 206 Peoples of Africa 208 Northwestern Africa 210 Morocco and Algeria 212 Tunisia and Libya 214 Northeastern Africa 216 Egypt and Sudan 258 Australia and Papua New Guinea 218 Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti, and Eritrea 260 Australia 220 West Africa 262 New Zealand 222 Mauritania, Niger, and Mali 264 The Pacific Ocean 224 Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, and Guinea Bissau 266 The Arctic 268 The Antarctic 226 Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire 228 Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Togo 230 Nigeria and Benin 232 Central Africa 233 Cameroon 234 Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, and São Tomé and Príncipe REFERENCE SECTION 270 Political Systems 272 Natural Disasters 236 Gabon, Congo, and the Democratic Republic of Congo 274 World Religions 276 Health and Education 238 Central East Africa 278 Rich and Poor 240 Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi 280 World Trade 242 Kenya and Tanzania 282 Glossary 244 Malawi and Zambia 284 Gazetteer 246 Southern Africa 296 Index 248 Angola, Botswana, and Namibia 302 Picture Credits and Acknowledgments HOW TO USE THIS BOOK HOW TO USE THIS BOOK THIS BOOK IS DIVIDED INTO six continental main geographical features. This is followed by country pages that go into detail about life in the countries. The reference section can be used to find out more about subjects of general interest, such as world religions or political systems. There is also a glossary, a gazetteer, and an index. These two pages explain the symbols and information found throughout the book. sections – North America, Central and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australasia and Oceania. At the start of each section there is a map showing the whole continent, and pages describing the peoples who live there. Each country, or group of countries, then has an individual map showing its cities, towns, and COUNTRY PAGES COLOR BORDERS Each continental section has a different color border to help you locate that section easily. This page on Japan has the color used for all the countries in Asia. The country pages, like this one for Japan, have been designed to give you as much information as possible about the way of life in a country – its people, their traditions, politics, and the economy. All the countries of the world are featured in the book. ASIA HEADING Every page in the book has a heading telling you the name of the section followed by the name of the country featured on that page. JAPAN ASIA JAPAN FACT BOXES Each country page has a box with important statistics about that country, such as its area, the size of its population, its capital city, and its currency. The notes below explain some other entries that appear in most fact boxes. Locator map JAPAN JAPAN Capital city: Tokyo Area: 145,882 sq miles (377,835 sq km) Population: 128,000,000 Official language: Japanese Major religions: Shinto and Buddhist 92%, other 8% Government: Multiparty democracy Currency: Yen Adult literacy rate: 99% Life expectancy: 82 years People per doctor: 496 Televisions: 707 per 1,000 people People per doctor This figure shows how many people there are for every one doctor. It gives a rough guide as to whether people have easy access to medical attention. Find out more on page 276. This shows the position of a country, or countries, in relation to its neighbors.This locator map shows where Japan lies off the coast of mainland Asia. FOR MANY CENTURIES, Japan was closed to JAPAN JAPAN Capital city: Tokyo Area: 145,882 sq miles (377,835 sq km) Population: 128,000,000 Official language: Japanese Major religions: Shinto and Buddhist 92%, other 8% Government: Multiparty democracy Currency: Yen Adult literacy rate: 99% Life expectancy: 82 years People per doctor: 496 Televisions: 707 per 1,000 people foreigners and wary of the outside world. Today, it is a leading industrial and technological power and one of the world’s richest countries. This transformation is even more remarkable given Japan’s mountainous landscape and lack of natural resources. Most raw materials have to be imported from abroad. Japanese people enjoy a high standard of living, with good health care and education systems. Average life expectancy in Japan is among the highest in the world. Western influence is strong, but people remain proud of their culture and traditions. Electronic components: 34% Computers: 24% Other 5% ECONOMIC STRENGTH Consumer goods: 18% Industrial equipment: 19% The Japanese excel at making electronic goods, such as televisions, cameras, digital watches, and computers, that are sold worldwide. Many Japanese companies are world leaders in the research and development of new technology. Major religions The figures provide a breakdown of the religious beliefs of the people. All the main religions are explained in detail on pages 274–275. Government This describes how a country is ruled, or governed. The main types of government are explained on pages 270–271. Adult literacy rate This is the percentage of people in a country that can read and write. Literacy rates are based on the ability of people aged 15 or over to read and write a simple sentence. Find out more about literacy on page 277. Life expectancy MAKING MONEY The Rainbow Bridge connects the port with the city. Japan has a highly developed infrastructure and industrial base. One of the main reasons why the country’s industries have grown so quickly is that the Japanese are very hardworking. Many of the larger companies are like families, providing housing and health care for their employees. However, society is slowly changing. Young people are starting to question this working culture, especially as the economy began to slow down in the 1990s and unemployment rose. The number shows how long the average person in a country can expect to live. Figures are a combination of the average life expectancy for men and women. There is more about life expectancy on page 276. CHERRY BLOSSOM Japanese people share a love of nature and pay close attention to the changing seasons. The blossoming of cherry trees is a reminder that spring has arrived. The first blossoms appear in southern Kyushu. Their progress is plotted on maps shown on television news. The blossoms last for a few days, and people celebrate by picnicking under the cherry trees. JAPAN A Japanese woman praying to a statue of Buddha. FESTIVALS There are plenty of festivals in Japan, each with their own emphasis and tradition. The parade shown here is from the Hakata Dontaku Festival in Kyushu, which is steeped in over 820 years of history. In the festival, Fukujin, Ebisu, and Daikoku, the three gods of good fortune, make the rounds of the city. OVERCROWDING Japan is a huge economic power. It invests in land and property around the world, and many of the world’s largest commercial banks are Japanese. Japan’s economic and industrial heart is the capital, Tokyo. The world’s second largest stock exchange and the headquarters of many banks and corporations can be found in Tokyo’s Central Business District. It is said that if an earthquake hit this area, the world would suffer economic chaos. Electronic goods produced in Japan RELIGION Shinto and Buddhism, the two major religions of Japan, have always existed side by side and even merge together to a certain extent. Most Japanese people consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist, or Shinto-Buddhist. There is also a significant Christian community, making it the third most popular religion in Japan. Traditional folding fans made of bamboo and covered with paper are carried by both men and women. Black silk kimono TRADITIONAL DRESS People in Japan wear kimonos for religious festivals and other special occasions. A kimono (which means “clothing”) is a long-sleeved, wraparound robe, tied with a broad sash. It may be made of silk, cotton, or wool. Many formal silk kimonos are richly colored and beautifully embroidered. With a large population and a lack of flat land for settlement, Japan is a crowded country. Land is expensive, especially in the cities, and many people commute long distances to work. During rush hour, subway trains are so crowded that guards have to push commuters on board. The uncomfortable journeys that people endure inspired Japanese technicians to invent personal stereos so people could listen to music while traveling. CHILDREN’S LIVES Children are well taken care of in Japan. There is even a national holiday, Children’s Day, dedicated to them. In another festival, “seven-five-three day,” children are dressed in traditional clothing and taken to religious shrines. Japanese children are expected to study hard at school. In addition to a long school day, many pupils attend extra classes on Saturdays and in the evenings. SPORTING LIFE Whether watching or taking part, Japanese people love sports. The national team sport is baseball, which came to Japan from the US. An ancient sport unique to Japan is sumo wrestling. Success in the ring depends on weight and strength, so wrestlers follow high-protein diets. Golf is popular in Japan. Practice ranges are often built on several levels to save space. FISHING FOR FOOD As a nation of islands, Japan depends heavily on the surrounding seas for food. The Japanese catch and eat more fish than any other country, and have the largest fishing fleet in the world. There are hundreds of villages dotted along the coast from which small fishing boats venture out, while deep-sea fish are caught by larger trawlers. Some trawlers are floating fish factories that process the catch on board. Millions of fish Fish are cleaned and are also bred filleted on each year on board. fish farms. Deep-sea trawlers may stay at sea for months at a time. Many types of fish and seafood are eaten raw, as sushi, and artistically presented on lacquered dishes or trays. Find out more Wooden clogs, or geta 186 After filleting, the fish are frozen or canned. Fish are stored in the hold. EARTHQUAKES: 13 GROWING CITIES: 17, 136 LIFE EXPECTANCY: 276 PACIFIC RIM ECONOMIES: 137 187 Abbreviations used in the book: Imperial ft in sq miles mph °F feet inches square miles miles per hour degrees Fahrenheit Metric m mm cm km sq km km/h °C meters millimeters centimeters kilometers square kilometers kilometers per hour degrees Centigrade Other abbreviations BC Before Christ AD Anno Domini US United States UK United Kingdom 8 Find out more EARTHQUAKES: 13 GROWING CITIES: 17, 136 LIFE EXPECTANCY: 276 PACIFIC RIM ECONOMIES: 137 FIND OUT MORE BOXES At the end of each country entry there is a Find out more box. This directs you to other pages in the book where you can discover more about a particular subject. For example, one of the pages on Japan explains how the country suffers from hundreds of earthquakes a year. You can find out more about earthquakes and why they occur by turning to page 13 in the book. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK East China Sea China 10 K6, 133 L10, 265 A3 East Frisian Islands Germany 95 E3 Lumbala N’guimbo Tsumeb A I B Lobatse s Fish Vryburg AFRICA R TROPIC OF CANCE Beaufort West Saldanha Table Mt. 12 LOCATOR MAP This map shows the position of the country, or countries, within the continental section. It also shows how near the country is to the equator, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, or the Arctic or Antarctic Circle. This gives an indication of how hot or cold a country is. Find out more about climate on pages 14–15. Angola Namibia COUNTRY FLAGS The national flag for each country or territory appears around the edge of the map. The designs often reflect the culture or religion of the country. PRICORN TROPIC OF CA Polokwane (Pietersburg) Johannesburg Vereeniging Oudtshoorn CAPE TOWN Cape of Good Hope S a ve Inhambane MBABANE SWAZILAND Tu g e l a MASERU E A K D R Grahamstown N S B Mt. ThabanaNtlenyana E Umtata East London Lake L. Eyre SWAZILAND Seasonal lake LESOTHO Angel Falls SOUTH AFRICA Waterfall Port Elizabeth, South Africa a Jan 70°F (21°C) July 56°F (13°C) b Jan 1.2 in (31 mm) July 1.9 in (48 mm) Port Elizabeth Akosombo Dam Dam C. Agulhas CITY GROWTH RIYADH Across southern Africa, people are leaving the countryside and moving to the cities in search of work. The outlying areas surrounding such cities as Johannesburg in South Africa are crammed with shantytowns which are now a permanent feature of the landscape. Maputo, the capital of Mozambique (right), doubled in size between 1975 and 1983 and now contains more than 1.5 million people. WEATHER FACTS The average temperature and amount of rainfall recorded in January and July are shown around the main map. Weather facts are given for several places on the map to show how temperature and rainfall can vary within an area. The weather inland, for example, will generally be hotter than that near the coast. L. Tuz Nampula Pietermaritzburg Durban LESOTHO Mafeteng E Beira Xai-Xai MAPUTO PRETORIA Mmabatho Orange R. De Aar E Q U AT O R m Soweto Klerksdorp al Va Upington Kimberley BLOEMFONTEIN Calvinia 11 Li SOUTH Karasburg . Orange R 10 Thohoyandou opo BOTSWANA nt Keetmanshoop he Serowe Pemba Quelimane mp Maltahöhe Lüderitz 9 Mariental ifa Jan 4.2 in (107 mm) July 0 in (0 mm) Bulawayo as Mahalapye I A R A HR T L GABORONE A S E E K Jwaneng D Rehoboth Chimoio Masvingo Selebi-Phikwe B O T S WA N A Gobabis Ol b Walvis Bay R T S E D E a Jan 77°F (25°C) July 58°F (15°C) WINDHOEK Makgadikgadi Pans Orapa Francistown m Li Francistown, Botswana Ghanzi Okahandja Mutare ZIMBABWE Maun Sh N A M I B I A M 7 Za Bindura HARARE Gweru Okavango Delta Mocimboa da Praia Nacala U N N Grootfontein Otjiwarongo Wadi A N I A Moçambique Chitungwiza Hwange Z Tete Chinhoyi Victoria Falls obe po Etosha Pan L. Kariba C River zi N ito Rundu bezi Cabora Bassa L. be Ongandjera po un en go Cu N'Giva m Za A rk a n s MOZAMBIQUE Rov ma u L. Nyasa a nd ge Lu B ban e C A Z I A B M 300 miles I Cu Lubango Cuito Cuanavale A Menongue 5 8 i 200 ZIMBABWE Huambo NAMIBIA 6 bez 100 N Benguela Namibe am 100 200 300 400 500 km W M A L A Luena Kuito Lobito State or province border A Saurimo A N G O L A Sumbe KANSAS OKLAHOMA T N’Dalatando Malanje Cuanza 0 L Q Lucapa go Caxito K 0 Longest river: Zambezi, Mozambique/Zimbabwe/ Zambia/Namibia/Angola, 1,678 miles (2,700 km) Map J5 Highest point: Mt. ThabanaNtlenyana, Lesotho, 11,424 ft (3,482 m) Map H10 Largest lake: L. Nyasa, Mozambique/Malawi/ Tanzania 11,000 sq miles (28,490 sq km) Map J4 Uíge an 4 O C E A N ANGOLA R E P. M. GO D EC O N Ambriz LUANDA J THINGS TO LOOK FOR ON THE MAP o Cu I C N T L A 3 ng Disputed border Z T 2 Co I O A SCALE Each map features a scale which shows how distances on the map relate to miles and kilometers. The scale can be used to see how big a country is, or how far it is from one place to another. Not all maps in the book are drawn to the same scale. (Angola) Cabinda INDIA Mi s s o u ri H M CABINDA CHINA I G NGO CO 1 International border SOUTHERN AFRICA F O C E A N E BURKINA FASO M D G 300 miles C R 200 B Z 100 A © N AFRICA 100 200 300 400 500 km MALI as 0 E h 0 Durango Town Mexico 39 E5 Durban Town South Africa 247 I10 Dushanbe Town Tajikistan 161 G8 Düsseldorf Town Germany 95 D6 Dvina (Northern, Western) River Russian Federation 78 I8, L6, 109 G6, J8, 138 E5 Dzhugdzhur Range Mountain range Russian Federation 133 O6, 139 Q8 Key to features on the maps D Each country appears on one of the regional maps, like this one of Southern Africa, shown below. These maps show many geographical features, such as mountain ranges, deserts, rivers, and lakes, along with capital cities and other major towns. The key on the far right shows you what these features look like on the maps. A compass point fixes the direction of the region in relation to North (N). USING THE GRID The grid around the outside of the page helps you find places on the map. For example, to find the city of Durban, look up its name in the gazetteer on pages 284–295. Next to the word Durban are the reference numbers 247 I10. The first number shows that Durban is on page 247. The second number shows it is in square I10 of the grid. Turn to page 247. Trace down from the letter I on the grid, and then across from the number 10. You will find Durban situated in the square where the number and the letter meet. This figure gives the grid reference on the map. I A This figure is the page number. I MAP PAGES Capital city WOMEN’S ROLE In traditional African society, women generally acted as wives and mothers and were responsible for routine household tasks and growing crops. Today, many African men work away from home in the mines and cities for one or two years at a time, leaving women to form a majority in their villages. This means that women are now taking on more responsibility in the communities. Sholapur Hyderabad Major town 247 Troy The Sun symbol represents the average temperature. Francistown, Botswana a Jan 77°F (25°C) July 58°F (15°C) b Jan 4.2 in (107 mm) July 0 in (0 mm) The cloud symbol represents the average rainfall. 9 Special feature Abbreviations used on maps L. I. or Is. R. Mt. or Mts. St. C. Res. Lake Island(s) River Mountain(s) Saint Cape Reservoir Citlaltépetl (Orizaba) Volcanic mountain Puncak Jaya Mountain THE PHYSICAL WORLD CONTINENTS AR Antarctica: 9.5% Baf a I . ie M NORTH 5 S. ri AIN sou PL Mis T A T L A N T I C IA N S INS ES SONORAN DESER T AP P A AL Azores C Ber muda O C E A N 6 an oG r ER de SI Ba TROPIC OF CANCER ma M ha Gulf of Mexico RA s AD RE n I s. Gre 7 ate rA n t i ll e s CARIBBEAN Lesse r A SEA CENTRAL P A C I F I C nt ar D SE A Newfoundland Great Lakes EA TA NG COA S T R A UN iia 4 GR MT MO Midway Is. LABRADOR SEA AMERICA Ri wa Hudson Bay ippi T Y CK R O TS. AS ka ARCTIC CIRCLE 3 CO G of Ala s ulf sh AMERICA al S 8 New Zealand Chatham Is. Bounty Is. Auckland Is. N Antipodes Is. O P Q R S T U V 10 nc PLATEAU OF MATO GROSSO TROPIC OF CAPRICORN 11 ná PAM Cape Horn Fra São L. Titicaca Juan Fernández Is. o Para Tubuai Is. isc S Is. 9 A . Highest point on Earth: Mt. Everest, China/Nepal, 29,035 ft (8,850 m) Map H6 Lowest point on Earth: Mariana Trench, Pacific Ocean, 35,840 ft (10,924 m) below sea level Map L8 Longest river: Nile, Egypt/Sudan/ Uganda, 4,187 miles (6,738 km) Map E7 Largest lake: Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan/Iran/Turkmenistan/ Kazakhstan/Russian Federation, 146,101 sq miles (378,400 sq km) Map F5 Largest ocean: Pacific Ocean, 63,804,540 sq miles (165,241,000 sq km) Map Q7 I AMA A N D D E S ER T E S Is Is. ty otu P 12 A T L A N T I C NIA ga To n lty Co atu ok cie Tu a m iti I N B A S S O U T H A M E R I C A THINGS TO LOOK FOR ON THE MAP s. So Ta h A M A Z O N P ATA G O u u Va n ya Fiji E Q U AT O R Amazon AT A C . al Samoa A N D Is v Tu Marquesas Is. E S ne ru ga Is Tu n e r t b (G i l Galápagos Is. Phoenix Is. LL Li A NO s. lI O C E A N .) Lo 2 it nz Great Slave L. H Stra ng ri cke I. Stra Ma Baf fin Bay vis Yu k o n Is. Ha fin Great Bear L. BERING SEA Aleutian ori AN Vict Devon I. NL ks I. 1 Greenland Da it BEAUFOR T SEA Melville I. ll I. ere m es EE CHUKCHI SEA n Ba Be M South North America: America: 12% 16.5% OR Mississ EAST SIBERIAN SEA Africa: 20% GR U AT Europe: 7% Land: 29% Asia: 30% E EQ PIC OF CANCER Australia: 5% Earth’s surface illes TRO The seven continents that make up the world’s land mass are, from largest to smallest: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. The polar regions, not completely visible on the flat map, surround the North and South poles and are shown on the globes left and below. CTIC CIRCLE Water: 71% Only 29 percent of the Earth’s surface is land. The percentage area of each continent is shown here. O C E A N 13 Falkland Is. W X Y A MOVING CONTINENTS MOVING CONTINENTS Liquid outer core INSIDE THE EARTH The Earth is not a solid ball, but is made up of many different layers. The crust that forms the continents and the ocean floors is a thin layer of rock that covers the Earth like a shell. The mantle beneath is 1,864 miles (3,000 km) thick and made of hot rock, some of which is molten (liquid). At the center is the core, the hot metallic center of the Earth. This is liquid on the outside and solid on the inside. 200 million years ago PANTHALASSA 180 million years ago Scientists believe that some 300 million years ago all the land on Earth was joined together in one “supercontinent” called Pangaea. It was surrounded by a giant ocean, Panthalassa. About 200 million years ago, as the plates moved, Pangaea began to split into two great landmasses, Laurasia in the north, and Gondwanaland in the south. These were separated by the Tethys Sea. As the plates continued to move, the two landmasses split and moved farther apart, eventually forming the continents on the map below. L AU R A S I A G TETHYS SEA O N DW NORTH AMERICA AN ALAN D EUROPE ASIA AFRICA SOUTH AMERICA INDIA AUSTRALIA 65 million years ago ANTARCTICA NORTH AMERICAN P L AT E E U R A S I A N P L AT E TI C JUAN DE FUCA PLATE GE PANTHALASSA Lower mantle RID PA N G A E are always on the move, shifted around by forces deep inside the Earth. This is known as continental drift. Movement, or drift, takes place because of intense heat generated within the Earth. The heat is carried upward where it disturbs the cool, rocky surface, or crust, forcing sections of it, called plates, to move. Each year the continents, parts of the plates, drift nearly half an inch (about a centimeter), some getting closer together, others moving farther apart, some grinding past each other. As this happens, many of the Earth’s natural features are created or changed. IN THE BEGINNING Upper mantle The hot inner core is solid THE CONTINENTS THAT MAKE UP most of the Earth’s land surface A Earth’s crust ARABIAN PLATE PHILIPPINE PLATE M PA C I F I C ID -IN IC RIDGE RISE G ID AN CARIBBEAN PLATE SOUTH AMERICAN P L AT E IC INDO-AUSTRALIAN P L AT E E - AT L A N T DI EA S T PA C IF MID SO UT HW E ST IN COCOS PLATE P L AT E D I A N R ID G E AFRICAN P L AT E AN M I D - AT L IRANIAN PLATE R SO UT HE AST INDIA NAZCA PLATE N R I DG E ANTARCTIC PLATE KEY TO MAP Subduction zone Mid-ocean ridge and faults Collision zone Uncertain plate boundary I PA C I F I C - A N TA R C T Movement of plate Volcano 12 I C R DG E SCOTIA PLATE MOVING CONTINENTS RESTLESS EARTH Because the Earth appears to stand still, it is difficult to imagine that the crust is moving. In fact, its plates move in three main ways – as spreading ridges, subduction zones, and transform faults, all shown on the artwork below. It is possible to see the effect this activity has had on the landscape. The Rocky Mountains in North America were formed when two plates collided, while the Great Rift Valley in Africa is the result of plates pulling apart. Volcanoes and earthquakes are also dramatic reminders that the plates are moving. Chains of volcanoes are often found along subduction zones. At Thingvellir, Iceland, the spreading ridge between the North American and Eurasian plates appears as a long gash in the landscape. SPREADING RIDGES A spreading ridge occurs where two plates start to pull apart and molten rocks from the Earth’s mantle well up to fill the gap. If this happens along the ocean floor, it creates an underwater mountain chain such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Sometimes the peaks of these mountains break the surface as volcanic islands, as happened with Iceland. When a spreading ridge occurs on land, it creates a steep-sided rift valley. A mid-ocean ridge where two plates are pulling apart Plates slide past each other along a transform fault. When plates collide, the crust buckles and folds and may be pushed up to form mountains. At a subduction zone, the crust is forced down into the mantle, where it melts. TRANSFORM FAULT At a transform fault two plates grind past each other in opposite directions or in the same direction but at different speeds. No crust is made or destroyed in the process, but the movement creates deep cracks in the ground. The sliding movement often occurs in short bursts, which are felt on the surface as earthquakes. The San Andreas fault in California is an active earthquake zone. The continents fit together like a jigsaw puzzle, and show that they were once joined. LOOKING AT THE EVIDENCE SUBDUCTION ZONE When two plates meet, the edge of one can be pushed down (subducted) under the other and into the mantle below. The rocks from the crust melt in the mantle. Often these molten rocks force their way to the surface as a volcano. The many volcanoes around the edge of the Pacific plate, such as Mt. Mihara, Japan, were formed this way. Sometimes when plates collide, rocks are forced up, forming great mountain ranges. When the German scientist Alfred Wegener first proposed his theory of moving plates in 1923, people dismissed his ideas as nonsense. Since then, evidence had proved him correct. Fossils of the fern Glossopteris for example, have been found in rocks as far apart as India, Australia, and Africa. All these places were once joined together as Gondwanaland. Further proof comes from matching types of rock that have been found in Australia, Antarctica, and South America. 13 The San Andreas fault is the point where the Pacific and North American plates meet. Fossil finds Matching rock The Glossopteris fern CLIMATE AND VEGETATION CLIMATE AND VEGETATION CLIMATE IS THE AVERAGE PATTERN of weather and temperature in a particular area over a long period of time. Similar types of climate are found in different places around the world. For example, there are regions of hot, dry desert in Africa and North America, as well as across central Australia. It is a region’s climate, together with its physical landscape, that determines the kind of vegetation, or plant life, that is usually found there. Cold areas near the poles and icy mountain peaks support little, or no, vegetation. Hot, wet rain forests near the equator, however, encourage the fast growth of a variety of plants. The Earth’s axis is tilted at 23.5 degrees TR EQ Places near the North and South poles have the coldest climates because the Sun’s rays hit them at an angle. This means any warmth is spread out over a wider area. TR AN TA RC OP TIC IC OF CIR OP UA IC TO OF CT CA IC NC CIR CL E ER PR ICO RN 0 degrees latitude CL June: Summer in the northern hemisphere September: Spring in the southern hemisphere R 0 degrees longitude CA Sun As the Earth travels around the Sun, the tilt on its axis means that each place leans gradually nearer the Sun, and then farther away from it. This causes the seasons. When the northern hemisphere leans toward the Sun it has summer. When it tilts away it has winter. In the southern hemisphere this is reversed. Between the warm days of summer and the cold days of winter come spring and fall. The Earth also spins on its axis, turning once every 24 hours to give us day and night. The side facing the Sun has day, while the other side has night. North Pole AR December: Summer in the southern hemisphere SEASONS OF THE YEAR Earth spins on its axis Places close to the Equator are hot all year round. This is because the Sun’s rays strike the equator directly and their heating power is very strong. March: Spring begins in the northern hemisphere E South Pole LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE A region’s climate is influenced by how far to the north or south of the equator it lies. This is called its latitude. The equator, an imaginary line running around the Earth, lies at 0 degrees latitude. Other lines of latitude include the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Regions around the equator are the hottest in the world, while the closer to the poles you go, the colder it gets. There are also longitude lines that run from north to south, known as meridians. LAND AND SEA The climate of a region is affected by altitude – how high a place is above sea level. The higher a place, the colder its climate, even if it lies near the equator or the Tropics, like these Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Another important influence is how close a place is to the sea. The sea warms and cools more slowly than land, so coastal areas often have fewer extremes in temperature. 14 RAINFALL The amount of rainfall a place receives during the year greatly affects its vegetation as well as its climate. Plants need water to make their own food and will thrive in the warm, wet climate of a tropical rain forest, shown here in Costa Rica. Where rainfall is very low, in deserts and polar regions, only a few plants manage to survive. In other places, the amount of rainfall varies with the seasons. CHANGES IN WORLD CLIMATE The world’s climate can be changed by both natural as well as human events. When Mt. Pinatubo, a volcano in the Philippines, erupted in 1991, it threw ash and dust high into the atmosphere. Locally, this caused dark skies, heavy rainfall, and high winds. The distance the ash was carried can be seen from this satellite photo. Equally, events such as the massive oil fires in Kuwait, started during the Gulf War, can have a damaging effect on climate. CLIMATE AND VEGETATION VEGETATION ZONES ARCTIC CIRCLE Al 'Aziziyah TROPIC OF CANCER Wettest place on Earth: Tutunendo, Colombia, average annual rainfall 463 in (11,770 mm) Highest temperature on Earth: Al’ Aziziyah, Libya, 136°F (58°C ) Tutunendo Calama Lowest temperature on Earth: Vostock Station, Antarctica, -129°F( -89°C) E Q U AT O R TROPIC OF CAPRICORN Driest place on Earth: Calama, Atacama Desert, Chile, average annual rainfall 0 in (0 mm) Scientists divide the Earth into a number of different vegetation zones, also known as “biomes,” shown on the map, left. The plant and animal life found in each zone depends on the region’s climate, landscape, and latitude. Over millions of years, plants and animals have adapted to life in this range of climates, often developing special features that have helped them to survive. The map also highlights how similar landscapes, such as taiga or desert, occur at the same latitude across the world. A N TA R C T I C C I R C L E Vostok POLAR AND TUNDRA The areas around the North and South poles are freezing cold and covered in ice. South of the North Pole lies a region called the tundra, where the lower layers of soil are permanently frozen. Hardy mosses, lichens, and shrubs are the only plants that can survive here. TAIGA In Russian, the word taiga means “cold forest.” It describes the vast evergreen forests that stretch across northern Canada, Scandinavia, and the Russian Federation. Evergreen trees, such as fir, spruce, and pine, are well-adapted to the long, snowy winters. MOUNTAIN REGIONS The higher up a mountain you go, the colder it gets. Trees and plants grow on the lower slopes of many mountains. But above a certain level, called the tree line, it is too cold and windy for plants to survive. High mountain peaks are often covered in snow all year round. TEMPERATE FOREST Much of the land in northern Europe and North America was once covered by deciduous forests (trees that lose their leaves in winter). Most of these have now been cut down. Deciduous trees grow well in temperate climates where it is never very hot or very cold. MEDITERRANEAN Areas with a Mediterranean climate have hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. They include land around the Mediterranean Sea and other similar places, such as California in the US. Plants and trees, such as olives, have adapted to survive the lack of water in summer. DRY GRASSLAND Vast grasslands cover the centers of some of the continents. They include the South American pampas and the North American prairies. They have hot, dry summers and very cold winters. Large parts of these grasslands are now plowed for wheat or used to raise cattle. TROPICAL RAIN FOREST Around the equator, the climate is hot and wet all year round, and providing ideal conditions for lush, green tropical forests to thrive. The world’s rain forests may contain 50,000 different types of trees, as well as millions of other species of plants and animals. HOT DESERT Deserts are the hottest, driest places on Earth. Despite heat during the day, temperatures may plunge to below freezing at night. In some deserts, years pass without rain. Deserts often contain sandy soil that can only support plants such as cacti. TROPICAL GRASSLAND Between the hot deserts and tropical rain forests lie tropical grasslands, such as the African savanna. The climate here is always hot, but the year is divided into a wet and a dry season. Tall grasses, as well as low trees and shrubs, grow in these hot areas. 15 WORLD POPULATION WORLD POPULATION PEOPLE HAVE LIVED ON EARTH for at least 2 million years. WHERE PEOPLE LIVE Asia: 60.5% For most of that time, population size remained steady, because the number of people born roughly equaled the number that died. Disease and famine ensured that the size of the population did not overtake supplies of food and other resources. However, as farming methods became more efficient and medical knowledge improved, population size rapidly began to increase. It now stands in excess of 6 billion people, with more than one million babies born every four days. In many parts of the world, rapid population growth has created serious problems, such as food shortages Australasia and Oceania: and overcrowding in cities. 0.5% People are not evenly distributed among the world’s continents. The fact that a continent is large, such as North America, does not necessarily mean that it has a large population. Some regions cannot support more than a few people, while others, with fertile soils and good communications, can support many. The world map below shows the average number of people who live in a square mile, or kilometer, in each country. This is called population density. Africa: 13.3% North America: 6.8% Europe: 12.1% World map showing the population density of each country Antarctica: 0% This chart shows the size of each continent or region, together with the percentage of the world’s population living on it. Far more people live in Asia than anywhere else on Earth. South America: 6.8% World’s least densely populated country: Mongolia, 4 people per sq mile (2 per sq km) By 2020 the world’s population will reach about 7.5 billion. Country with the largest population: China, 1,331,400,000 people 8 World’s most densely populated country: Monaco, 43,561 people per sq mile (16,745 per sq km) Country with the smallest population: Vatican City, 821 people 7 People per sq mile (sq km) 0–50 (0–19) 51–128 (20–49) 129–516 (50–199) 517+ (200+) In 1500 the world’s population was about 425 million. In 1600 the world’s population was about 545 million. 5 In 1950 the world’s population was about 2.5 billion. In 1900 the world’s population was about 1.6 billion. In 1700 the world’s population was about 610 million. In 1800 the world’s population was about 900 million. 4 MILLIONS FROM PAST TO PRESENT In 1500, the world’s population stood at 425 million. The majority of these people were concentrated in towns and villages in the northern hemisphere. At first the growth rate was gradual, but from 1800 onward, better health care and food production, and the Industrial Revolution led to rapid world growth. Between 1950 and 1990 alone, the population doubled. Most of the population growth between now and 2020 is projected to occur in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America – the regions that are least able to afford such increases. 6 3 2 1 0 1500 1600 1700 1800 16 1900 2000 2020 WORLD POPULATION Percentage growth of city dwellers People living in the cities (urban) Highest and lowest birth rates within each continent Asia Rwanda: 8.3 Yemen: 7.3 16% 23% The number of babies a woman has varies from one country to another. In the Sudan, above, the birth rate is high, with an average of 4.9 babies per mother. Better health care, even in the poorer countries of the world, means that fewer babies now die of hunger or disease, and fewer women die in childbirth. In wealthy countries, such as Canada, the birth rate is low because people can choose to have small families. Advances in medical knowledge also mean that people are living longer. 34% 37% North America 64% 74% 75% 76% South America 43% Guatemala: 4.9 BIRTH AND DEATH People living in the countryside (rural) 1950 Papua New Guinea: 4.8 1970 1990 60% 2000 75% 75% Rural areas URBAN GROWTH At the start of the 20th century, only one in ten people lived in a city. The vast majority lived in rural areas and worked on the land. Today, about half the world’s population consists of city dwellers. There are various reasons for this growth. For example, in South America people have been pushed out of the countryside by poverty and loss of land and are drawn to the cities in search of work. By 2020, if the growth continues, almost half of all people will live in a city. Mexico: 3.3 Albania: 2.9 Tunisia: 3 San Marino: 1.5 Canada: 1.8 Uruguay: 2.5 Australia: 1.8 Hong Kong: 1.3 WORLD’S BIGGEST CITIES IN 1950 New York, US London, UK Tokyo, Japan Paris, France Shanghai, China 12,300,000 8,700,000 6,700,000 5,400,000 5,300,000 WORLD’S BIGGEST CITIES IN 2005 Tokyo, Japan Mexico City, Mexico Seoul, South Korea New York, USA São Paulo, Brazil 34,200,000 22,800,000 22,300,000 21,900,000 20,200,000 CITY SLUMS One effect of the move of large numbers of people from the countryside to the cities is overcrowding. There are simply not enough houses and resources to go around. In many large cities, such as Mumbai (Bombay), India, this has led to the growth of sprawling shanty towns on the edges of cities. Conditions in these city slums are often unhygienic. Families survive in crowded homes made of makeshift materials, often with no electricity or running water. LOOKING TO THE FUTURE SUPER CITIES Before the 19th century, cities with more than a million people were rare. In the last 100 years, however, the number of large cities has grown dramatically. Today, several cities, such as Tokyo, already have populations of more than 20 million. This means that some cities have more people than some entire countries do, such as New Zealand or Sweden. Large cities often suffer from pollution, caused by car exhausts, factory emissions, and domestic waste. Although world population growth is showing signs of slowing, numbers are still rising quickly, especially in developing countries. To encourage people to have fewer children, programs have been set up to teach women about family planning and health care so that they have more control over the size and health of their families. Today, almost half the married women in the developing world report that they or their partner use birth control, compared with less than a quarter in 1980. This doctor is writing out a prescription for contraceptives, now used by 43 percent of the women in Zimbabwe. 17 THE POLITICAL WORLD THE POLITICAL WORLD IN ADDITION TO BEING DIVIDED into physical land masses, the world is also split into countries. These countries are separated from one another by language, government, and culture, and this creates the political world. As recently as 1950, there were only 82 countries. Today there are 1 Svalbar d A T L A N T I C O C E A N (Nor) Bjør nøya (Nor) Jan Mayen (Nor) 2 DE N ICELAND AY R U S S I A N NO RW KEY 1 NETHERLANDS LATVIA 2 BELGIUM UNITED DENMARK LITHUANIA 3 LUXEMBOURG KINGDOM RUSSIAN 4 SWITZERLAND FED. BELARUS 5 LIECHTENSTEIN IRELAND 1 6 MOLDOVA POLAND GERMANY 7 ANDORRA 2 8 MONACO CZECH 3 UKRAINE REP. SLOVAKIA Channel Is. 9 SAN MARINO 10 VATICAN CITY Y (UK) 6 11 SLOVENIA FRANCE 4 5 AUSTRIA HUNGAR 11 12 CROATIA ROMANIA 13 BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA 12 14 13 9 14 SERBIA 7 15 MONTENEGRO IT 8 15 16 BULGARIA A 16 KOSOVO (disputed) 18 10 L Y 17 17 ALBANIA SPAIN GREECE 18 MACEDONIA ISRAEL LIBY A EGYPT TA N TA G HA PA KI IA AL M MB British Indian Ocean Ter ritor y SEYCHELLES (Fr) IBIA SOUTH AFRICA PAPUA NEW GUINEA NAM I N D O N E S I A (UK) Christmas I. Agalega Is. (Maur) Cocos (Keeling) Is. EAST TIMOR (Aus) Ashmor e & Car tier Is. (Aus) Coral Sea Is. (Aus) (Aus) MAURITIUS Réunion (Fr) I N D I A N O C E A N SWAZILAND 11 PALAU BRUNEI SINGAPORE AGAS NAM BOTSWANA U IQ MOZA ZIMBABWE MALAYSIA MALDIVES Mayotte E (UK) Guam (USA) MICRONESIA (Ind) CAR ZAMBIA St Helena VI Nicobar Is. SRI LANKA GA MALAWI (USA) PHILIPPINES ET (Ind) COMOROS ANGOLA LESOTHO Tristan da Cunha A U S T R A L I A Amster dam I. (St Helena) (Fr) Gough I. St Paul I. (Fr) (St Helena) Prince Edwar d Is. A T L A N T I C O C E A N B Nor ther n Mariana Is. CAMBODIA SO A CABINDA (Angola) (St Helena) LAOS THAILAND Andaman Is. (Ind) Lakshadweep ND C A TAIWAN MYANMAR INDIA EN KENYA U RWANDA BURUNDI D E M O C R AT I C REPUBLIC OF CONGO TANZANIA GO ON GABON Ascension YEM ETHIOPIA CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC ME TOGO JAPAN BHUTAN PA L BANGLADESH U.A.E. DJIBOUTI EQ. GUINEA SÃO TOMÉ & PRÍNCIPE 13 NE M SUDAN ERITREA NIGERIA ON CÔTE D'IVOIRE CHAD CA LIBERIA BE NI N L BURKINA FASO SOUTH KOREA C H I N A S NI O NIGER RO A SIERRA LEONE 12 NORTH KOREA TAJIKISTAN AF MAD MALI GUINEA- GUINEA BISSAU 10 KYRGYZSTAN ST BAHRAIN QATAR A EG KI KUWAIT NI A GHANA SEN NIS N IRAQ RI M ME BE IRAN SAUDI ARABIA U CAPE VERDE GAMBIA 9 TURK JORDAN TA (disputed) 8 CYPRUS SYRIA LEBANON O ALGERIA WESTERN SAHARA ARMENIA AZERBAIJAN AN M (Sp) 7 MALTA RO CC (Port) Canar y Is. UZ GEORGIA AN O (UK) TUNISIA 6 MONGOLIA TURKEY Gibraltar Madeira KAZAKHST AN AN PORTUGAL 5 F E D E R A T I O N ESTONIA ST (Den) FINLAND SWE Faer oe Is. 3 4 more than twice that many – some vast, others tiny. New countries are created when people want freedom from their past colonial rulers or when separate peoples living within one country seek independence. The breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, for example, created seven new countries. (SA) Cr ozet Is. (Fr) Ker guelan (Fr) C D E F G H I J K L M THE POLITICAL WORLD The longest undefended border in the world runs between the US and Canada. The border is shown here as it cuts through a forested area in the east of both countries. A R C T I C COUNTRY BORDERS The line that separates one country from another is called a border. Sometimes these follow a natural feature, such as a mountain range or a river. On other occasions they follow a straight line, ignoring physical features. When countries are on friendly terms, borders can be little more than lines on a map, easily crossed. If there is conflict, however, borders may be heavily defended, and it is often difficult to move from one country to another. 1 Greenland (Den) O C E A N 2 Alaska (USA) 3 C A N A D A 4 St Pier re & Miquelon P A C I F I C O C E A N 5 (Fr) Azores U N I T E D S T ATES (Port) OF AMERICA Ber muda A T L A N T I C O C E A N (UK) Midway Is. (USA) MEXICO Hawaii Wake I. BELIZE Clipper ton I. (USA) (Fr) Galapagos Is. I (NZ) American Samoa (Fr) (USA) TONGA VANUATU Niue (NZ) FIJI Cook Is. (NZ) O C E A N Chatham I. (NZ) Bounty I. (NZ) Antipodes Is. Auckland Is. (NZ) (NZ) Campbell I. (NZ) Trindade San Felix I. (Br) AY San Ambrosio I. (Ch) (Ch) Juan Fer nandez Is. (Ch) 11 Y UA P A C I F I C 10 BOLIVIA UG NEW ZEALAND PERU UR (Aus) (Br) GU (UK) (NZ) O BRAZIL RA Pitcair n Is. Ker madec Is. World’s largest country: Russian Federation, 6,592,735 sq miles (17,075,200 sq km) Map I3 World’s smallest country: Vatican City, 0.17 sq miles (0.44 sq km) Map C5 World’s longest frontier: between the US and Canada 3,987 miles (6,416 km) Map T4 Country with the most neighbors: China has borders with 14 other countries Map I6 9 Fer nando de Noronha PA French Polynesia (Fr) New Caledonia (Fr) Nor folk I. (Fr) ECUADOR THINGS TO LOOK FOR ON THE MAP Tokelau Wallis & Futuna SAMOA 8 FRENCH GUIANA (Ec) E N T I N A T G A C H I L E TUVALU SOLOMON ISLANDS B (USA) R I Jar vis I. A R COLOMBIA E I VENEZUELA A K Lord Howe I. PANAMA G U YA N NAURU (Aus) NICARAGUA (USA) Palmyra Atoll (USA) Howland I. (USA) Baker I. (USA) ST KITTS & NEVIS ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES HONDURAS COSTA RICA Kingman Reef ANTIGUA & BARBUDA DOMINICA ST LUCIA BARBADOS GRENADA TRINIDAD & TOBAGO JAMAICA SU RI N AM MARSHALL ISLANDS GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR 7 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC HAITI (Mex) Johnston Atoll N BAHAMAS CUBA Revillagigedo Is. (USA) (USA) 6 A T L A N T I C O C E A N 13 Falkland Is. (UK) P Q R S T U V W 12 X Y Z NORTH AMERICA NORTH AMERICA D E NORTH AMERICA INCLUDES THE COUNTRIES of Canada, the United States, AR F G CTIC CIRCLE and Mexico, as well as the world’s largest island, Greenland. During the last Ice Age, a great sheet of ice flowed across the continent scouring the landscape, deepening the depressions that now hold the Great Lakes, and dumping fertile soil onto the central plains. The Rocky Mountains form the backbone of the continent, running from Alaska to New Mexico. In the east are A B C the Appalachian Mountains, flanked by coastal Point Bar row BEAUFORT SEA lowlands to the east and south. In eastern CHUKCHI SEA Canada lies the Canadian Shield, a huge basin E BROOKS RANG of ancient eroded rocks now covered with thin on Yu k soils. Deserts stretch from the southwestern SEWARD M AC PENINSULA KE United States down into northern Mexico. NZ Nor ton Sound ALASKA RANGE IE TROP IC OF CANCER Be rin gS trai t E Q U AT O R Mt. McKinley (Denali) St Lawrence I. Section across the US San Francisco Rocky Mountains Appalachian Mountains Great Plains BERING SEA Great Lakes Washington, DC ST a . Is N This view shows the Rockies in Canada. Queen Charlotte Is. C F I C I P A The main mountain ranges of North America, the snowcapped Rockies and the forested Appalachians, vary greatly in appearance (see above cross-section). The difference can be explained by their age. The Rockies, shown right, are relatively young mountains that have not yet been worn down. The Appalachians, however, are among the world’s oldest mountains and have been gradually eroded by the scouring action of wind, water, and the movement of glaciers. THE GRAND CANYON The Grand Canyon was formed over millions of years as the waters of the Colorado River and its tributaries carved their way through the solid rock. At some points the canyon is 1 mile (1.6 km) deep, and cuts through rocks that are 2,000 million years old. Different types of fossils found in the canyon walls reveal the dates of its changing history. THE GREAT LAKES Estimated to contain one-fifth of the world’s freshwater, the five Great Lakes straddle the border between Canada and the US. Only Lake Michigan, shown left, lies entirely within the US. The lakes are linked by waterways and drained by the St. Lawrence River, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean. The Niagara River, which joins lakes Erie and Ontario, passes over the famous Niagara Falls. THE GREAT PLAINS Across the center of Canada and the US lie the Great Plains, also called the prairies. This huge area has hot summers and cold, snowy winters. Trees are rare except along rivers and lakeshores, but the region was once covered with grasses grazed by millions of buffalo. Today, little natural prairie survives, and in its place farmers cultivate vast fields of corn and wheat. 20 S. MOUNTAIN RANGES n t i a A l e u A T Gulf of Al as k Kodiak I. O M Nunivak I. C NORTH AMERICA N l El Axel Heiberg I. r Na es Str ait KN lf Ba of Bo ff in ia PEAR Y LAND 1 D 2 G r e e n l a n d eB D I. oth AN N L av Den is FOXE BASIN f lf o C lif M de E Ca E ran R oG D Ri A E M L A R RA NT AD L ER IE M TA SI OR RA EN ER D I C SI OC a ni or Gu O A Highest temperature: Death Valley, California, US, 135°F (57°C) M is s i s s i p p i Te n s Red R iver nn HI AN ka sa o O C E A N Gulf of St Lawrence c Newfoundland Miquelon Is. ee ess T C. Sable S. C. Cod T ne Co pi Ohi Ar Grand Canyon en Niagara Falls L. Erie Platte tL r aw L. Ontario L. Michigan r SONORAN DESER T N S ip S S lo GREAT LAKES L. Huron i ss IN N S Death Valley M A I E N G R A Salt G R E A T Great Lake o BASIN ad iss k St r 0 250 500 250 500 750 miles C. May Washington DC A T C. Hatteras A L A Area: 9,173,409 sq miles (23,759,153 sq km) Highest point: Mt. McKinley (Denali), Alaska, US, 20,320 ft (6,194 m) Map E5 Longest river system: Mississippi–Missouri, US, 3,710 miles (5,971 km) Map L10 Largest lake: L. Superior, Canada/US, 31,820 sq miles (82,414 sq km) Map L8 Largest island: Greenland, 839,780 sq miles (2,175,600 sq km) Map R3 The water hyacinth 11 grows fast and can Gulf of Mexico choke waterways. L. Okeechobee The Everglades 12 B ay o f Campeche E BB RI EA A S C 4 5 750 1000 1250 km THINGS TO LOOK FOR ON THE MAP N L A Sn e L. Superior P T sto T N ll Ye ow Lake of the Woods A U Missouri ny C. Farvel C. Harrison Smallwood La Grande Res. R i v i ère e O C O A S T San Francisco Ne ls M E D E G ak Alba E 3 6 rg e an L. Winnipeg R 0 LABRADOR SEA ay es B Y A Vancouver I. on Jam K C N G ait UNGAVA PENINSULA Belcher Is. C h u rc h i l l S a sk a t c h e w Str eo C C A R S A on G O Reindeer L. ds I C L. Athabasca e Peac R Hudson Bay AC z ie . AL ken TS Hu Dubawnt L. PP ac Great Slave Lake it M M Amadjuak L. Southampton I. r ma Lowest temperature: Northice, Greenland, -87°F (-66°C) ra Back St Great Bear Lake T Northice Baffin Bay u SSE S ay G Victoria I. U SM ill Lancaster Sound Somerset I. Prince of Wales I. RA Melv C. York Devon I. Banks I. UD R OLN SEA e I. I s . e St rait Amundsen Gulf er esm Q EEN P a r r y Melville I. P LINC Queen Elizabeth Is. C. Prince McC Alfred lur O D S EA M LAN L N E A O C I C C T R K GR A J t I ai H AN 13 THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER The great Mississippi flows from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico. At the turn of the last century, the destruction of forest and the plowing of prairies around the river basin caused severe soil erosion. Soil washed into the river, raised the water level, and caused floods. Replanting forests and building dams has helped control the flow, but exceptionally heavy rains still cause floods. THE EVERGLADES Florida’s Everglades are a protected wetland habitat, home to many rare plants and animals. Originally covering a much larger area, part of the Everglades has been drained and used for the cultivation of sugarcane. The northern part of the surviving wetland is now a sawgrass prairie, covered by shallow water with islands of higher land. In the south, freshwater mixes with water from the sea, creating salt marshes fringed by mangrove swamps. 21 7 8 9 10 NORTH AMERICA PEOPLES OF Population density The figures on this chart show the number of people per sq mile (sq km). NORTH AMERICA Germany: 611 (236) ONCE POPULATED BY TRIBES of native peoples who lived off the land, the vast majority of North America’s population now consists of immigrants who arrived over the last 400 years. Today, in terms of both population and economic wealth, the continent is dominated by the US, the richest country in the world. To the north, Canada covers a vast area, but much of it is cold and inhospitable, and so it has a much smaller population. Both countries were once British colonies and are still mostly English speaking. In contrast, Mexico is Spanish speaking, reflecting its past as a Spanish colony. Mexico is a relatively poor country, despite its vast oil and gas reserves. The population of Vancouver, in western Canada, has grown dramatically in recent years as people have moved there from Hong Kong and other parts of Asia. US: 83 (32) Mexico: World average: 140 (54) 112 (43) Canada: 8 (3) POPULATION DISTRIBUTION In general, North America is one of the most sparsely populated continents. Over two-thirds of the population lives in the US. Mexico has the next largest population, followed by Canada. Historically, the eastern US has been the most densely populated area, but in the past few decades, many people have moved to the warmer southern and western states. In Canada, people have also left the east coast for the Great Lakes and cities such as Toronto, or for west coast cities such as Vancouver. Largest country: Canada, 3,855,081 sq miles (9,984,670 sq km) Population: approximately 429,500,000 people Number of countries: 3 Greenland (Den) Alaska (US) These people in New York City reflect the many different ethnic groups that make up the population of the US. C A N A D A Least densely populated country: Canada, 8 people per sq mile (3 per sq km) Most densely populated country: Mexico, 140 people per sq mile (54 per sq km) Smallest country: Mexico, 761,602 sq miles (1,972,550 sq km) St. Pier re & Miquelon (Fr) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Population of the US Native American: 1% Black: 13% Asian: 4% A CONTINENT OF IMMIGRANTS Hispanic: 13% White: 69% PEOPLE OF THE US The US is often known as a cultural “melting pot” because of all the different peoples that make up its population. The main groups are whites (people of European descent) Hispanics, blacks, Asians, and native peoples. 22 There have been many waves of immigrants to North America, mostly from Europe, but from South America and Asia, too. Not everyone chose to go. Today’s black Americans are descended from African slaves who were forced to the US between 1619–1808 to work on plantations. Slavery was not abolished in the US until 1865. Today, African Americans are a vital part of American culture, from politics to sports. NORTH AMERICA CANADIAN CULTURE Canadians often display their distinctive maple-leaf flag outside their homes. They are very proud of their country with its wide open spaces, lakes, mountains, and extensive national and provincial parks. But there is always the issue of US entertainment and culture flooding across the border and dominating the Canadian identity. To encourage Canada’s own cultural development, the government gives grants to the arts, and the broadcasting, publishing, and film industries. GOOD NEIGHBORS This Canadian “patriotic workshop” is painted in the colors of the country’s flag. This Mayan family is cooking tortillas. NATIVE PEOPLES Native Americans are the descendants of people who probably migrated from Asia via a land bridge across the Bering Strait about 20,000 years ago. Today, native peoples form only a small proportion of the population of the US and Canada. In the US, many Native Americans were moved onto special reservations in the 19th century as settlers took over their lands. In Mexico, This building in the city native peoples, like these Maya, of Sacramento is home form about 30 percent of the to the government population and are spread of the state throughout the country. of California There has not been a war between the countries of North America for nearly 150 years. Recently, Canada, the US, and Mexico agreed to abolish trade barriers and open their markets to each other’s exports. The full effects of this agreement are yet to be discovered, but Mexican workers like these farmers have already lost out, as cheaper US food and goods have flooded into Mexico. By contrast, cheaper food can benefit the poor. EUROPEAN SETTLERS Europeans have been settling in the US and Canada since the 16th century, but in the 19th century, immigrants began to flood in. They were often driven from Europe by economic hardship, political unrest, and religious persecution. North America was seen as a land of opportunity, where there was plenty of cheap land and people were promised freedom. The first immigrants settled on the east coast, but began to move northeast in the 1800s as industry began to grow. State government Federal government Education Foreign policy Highways Currency Housing Health care State police National parks FEDERAL GOVERNMENTS In the US, local matters, such as police, hospital, and highway services, are taken care of by individual states. Matters that affect all the states, such as foreign policy, defense, and issuing currency, are dealt with centrally. All three countries in North America have federal systems of government. This means that each country is divided into a number of states or provinces. These make their own local laws and also have representatives in the national government. Tension sometimes develops between the interests of the individual states or provinces and the interests of the country as a whole. In Canada, for example, a strong independence movement has grown up in the French-speaking province of Québec. 23 NORTH AMERICA CANADA CANADA CANADA CANADA Capital city: Ottawa Area: 3,855,081 sq miles (9,984,670 sq km) Population: 31,500,000 Official languages: English, French Major religions: Christian 83%, other 17% Government: Multiparty democracy Currency: Canadian dollar Adult literacy rate: 99% Life expectancy: 79 years People per doctor: 476 Televisions: 715 per 1,000 people THE SECOND LARGEST COUNTRY in the world, Canada occupies two-fifths of the North American continent, stretches across five time zones, and is divided into 10 provinces and three territories. It was once inhabited only by native peoples including the Inuit. The French were the first Europeans to settle in Canada, but after years of fighting the British gained control in 1763. Gradually they took over the rest of the country, as pioneers and settlers moved west and north. Today, Canada is an important industrial nation and one of the world’s richest countries. Most of its manufacturing is based on the natural resources of wood, metals, and mineral fuels. OTTAWA Ottawa, which is named after the native people who used to live in the area, was chosen as Canada’s capital city in 1857 by Queen Victoria of Britain. Today, the city boasts many magnificent copperroofed government buildings, museums, and art galleries, and a park-lined canal that turns into the world’s longest skating rink once the winter freeze sets in. Canadian vegetation zones Tundra and polar Mountain Taiga Grassland Temperate forest THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE About one-third of Canada lies within the Arctic Circle and can remain frozen for up to nine months of the year. In these cold northern areas, known as the tundra, any vegetation is limited to lichens, grasses, and small shrubs and trees. Farther south, large areas of land are covered by dense coniferous forests known as taiga. Toward the border with the US lie the mixed, temperate forests and the grasslands of the prairies. • Edmonton • Calgary •Vancouver Winnipeg • Montreal • Ottawa • WHERE PEOPLE LIVE Canada is such a large country, much of it uninhabitable, that on average there are only eight people living in each square mile (three per square kilometer). Around three-quarters of the population lives near the US border, in towns and cities around the shores of the Great Lakes and along the St. Lawrence River. The rest live in fishing villages along the coasts or on farms and villages inland. Great Lakes • • Toronto Hamilton PEOPLE OF CANADA Until quite recently, most Canadians were descendants of British or French settlers. Most of the French, like those at the winter carnival shown here, live in Québec province. Germans and Italians are also large ethnic groups but, recently, increased numbers of people have come from eastern Europe, South America, and Southeast Asia. Native peoples make up less than 3 percent of the population. CALGARY STAMPEDE Every year since 1923, thousands of people have flocked to Calgary for the famous Calgary Stampede. People dress up cowboy style to celebrate the old Wild West and Alberta’s origins as a cattle trading center. Attractions include a rodeo, complete with bucking broncos. 24 NORTH AMERICA THE FIRST CANADIANS Native peoples, including the Inuit, are sometimes called Canada’s “First Nations” because they lived in Canada long before European settlers arrived and took over their lands. Since 1970, the government has tried to draw these peoples into Canadian society, but many prefer their own culture and traditions. Across Canada colorful ceremonies and festivals demonstrate their proud spirit. Recently, First Nations have begun to win battles for their rights to ancestral lands. In 1999, the Nunavut area in the Northwest Territories became a self-governing Inuit territory, the first part of Canada to be governed by native Canadians in modern history. ♦ CANADA Caribou fur is used by the Inuit since it traps warm air between each of the hairs. The Inuit live in such cold conditions that they depend on warm clothing for survival. Traditional Inuit jacket, called a parka JAMES BAY In 1971, construction began on a vast hydroelectric project to dam the rivers that flow into James Bay and Hudson Bay, generating electricity for use in Canada and the US. However, the project threatened thousands of Cree Indians who live in this region. An agreement was reached in 1975 that led to the finishing of the project, and special compensation for the Indians. Insulated boots keep feet warm in freezing winter weather. CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY The last spike of the transcontinental rail link of the Canadian Pacific Railway was pounded in at Eagle Pass, British Columbia, on November 7, 1885. It was the start of a new era for Canada, opening up the west for trade and settlement, and finally making the vast country seem like one nation. One of the railroad’s most amazing engineering feats is a spiral tunnel-road drilled into the Rocky Mountains. Curving steadily around, the tunnel rises for more than 3,000 ft (914 m). In spite of quicker alternatives, tourists often take the spectacular trip across Canada by train. However, the railroad is mostly used for cargo. Zinc can be galvanized onto steel to prevent it from rusting. Nickel can be mixed with other metals to make jet engines. MINERAL WEALTH Most of Canada’s wealth comes from its abundance of natural resources, many of them mineral. It is the world’s largest producer of uranium, zinc, and nickel, and also has reserves of aluminum, gold, copper, and silver. Underground work has begun on what are thought to be some of the world’s richest diamond deposits in an area near Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories. Main cargo loads Containers and trailers: 23% Grain: 22% Coal: 13% Forest products: 10% Cars and other products: 22% Fertilizers: 10% AGRICULTURE Wheat and cattle farming dominate Canada’s main farming area, the prairies. Elsewhere, a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are grown. Apples, shown growing here in British Columbia, are the country’s most important fruit crop. Between lakes Ontario and Erie lies the Niagara fruit belt. The lakes protect this area from the worst of Canada’s weather, making it the ideal place for growing tender fruits such as pears, plums, peaches, and cherries. COPING WITH THE COLD Winters are long and cold throughout Canada but when the first snow falls, snow plows and salt trucks are out making sure the roads are safe. Next to some parking places there are even electric outlets where drivers can plug in heaters to keep their car’s engine warm. During winter people can play hockey on frozen lakes and ponds. Skiing and snowboarding are also popular winter sports. Snow plows clear the roads to make them safe. 25 Find out more DIAMONDS: 150, 226, 248 EARLY SETTLERS: 23, 31 INUIT: 266 VEGETATION ZONES: 15 NORTH AMERICA CANADA WESTERN CANADA A WEALTH OF NATURAL RESOURCES first attracted European settlers VANCOUVER Situated between the mountains and the sea, Vancouver is an attractive city and an industrial center, as well as a busy port. Its ice-free harbor provides Canada with year-round access for trade with Asian countries across the Pacific Ocean. Many Chinese families settled here rather than staying in Hong Kong when it reverted to China in 1997. The most used softwood trees are spruce, shown left, then pine and fir. The most used hardwood trees are poplar, then birch, shown right, and maple. to the wilds of western Canada. Fur trappers, gold prospectors, and loggers all hoped to make their fortune from the land. Today, natural resources are still the basis of the economy. The fertile soils of the prairie provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan make up four-fifths of Canada’s farmland. Fishing is a major industry along the Pacific coast, where the main catch is salmon, most of which is canned for export. By contrast, the remote Yukon, Northwest, and Nunavut territories have important reserves of gold, zinc, and lead. These territories are also the only part of Canada where the native peoples form the majority of the population. LUMBER INDUSTRY Moist winds from the Pacific Ocean deposit rain on the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains, making conditions ideal for trees to grow to enormous sizes. Canada is the world’s largest exporter of forest products, and the province of British Columbia produces almost half of Canada’s lumber. Some logs are still floated to the sawmills, but today logs are often transported by road or helicopter. Most of the lumber is softwood, used for building materials as well as for chopsticks for Japan. Logs are sawn when they are still “green,” or full of sap. The method shown here produces boards with a decorative grain. TOTEM POLES For generations, native peoples of the northwestern coast carved wooden totem poles to record their family trees. Part of a pole shows which of the main clans a family belongs to, such as the raven or the wolf clan. Totem poles often guarded doorways to village homes. Logs may be floated downriver from the forests to the sawmills in the form of huge rafts. At the sawmill the lumber is cut into planks or pulped for papermaking. The animals carved on the totem pole are symbols of the family’s ancestors. LIVING IN THE WILD COAL, OIL, AND GAS WEALTH Once grain and beef processing centers for the prairies, Edmonton and Calgary grew rich during the 1970s from the coal, oil, and gas found in the prairies and nearby Rocky Mountains. Now Edmonton boasts a gigantic shopping mall with a hockey rink, a swimming pool, a rollercoaster, and a hotel where people can stay during a shopping trip. 26 Large parts of the extreme north of Canada are home to more animals than people. Although part of the area is forested most of it is icy wilderness known as tundra. Animals that live here are adapted to the very cold conditions, and waterproof fur helps them to survive the snow and ice. Caribou, or reindeer, live on the tundra but migrate to the forests farther south in winter to escape the cold. Grizzly bears are found in the Rocky Mountains and can be dangerous. NORTH AMERICA B C D E F CANADA G H A CER Mackenzie King I. 300 miles Mc 5 A AL A (US S K A) A E S. R pper mine A D Nonacho L. av Fort McMurray U N Grande Prairie I S N Columbia F ra s e r A EDMONTON Leduc Jasper Wetaskiwin Red Deer A b Jan 0.9 in (23 mm) July 3.3 in (84 mm) F r o b is h e r Bay U N I T E D Lethbridge Sask Lloydminster son Strait S TAT E S atc wa es n n The Pas L. Winnipeg Saskatoon Yorkton Melville L. Winnipegosis REGINA Moose Jaw Swift Current Weyburn O F 27 n Bay a Jan -19°F (-28°C) July 54°F (12°C) b Jan 0.5 in (13 mm) July 2.2 in (56 mm) rc h lso Flin Flon Prince Albert North Battleford Drumheller Medicine Hat Cranbook Hud Chu Lynn Lake S A S K ATCHEWAN Calgary E Jan 6°F (-14°C) July 63°F (17°C) MANITOBA Reindeer L. Frobisher L. Thompson Athabasca T C a Vancouver Cree L. Lesser Slave L. L. Louise Churchill al L. Athabasca Wollaston L. A L B E R TA Vernon Penticton Se he O O VICTORIA Squamish Athabasc M o C F I P A C I N a Y ag Vancouver I. Edmonton, Alberta e K pel Fort St John so d Sl C Uranium City Peace Kamloops IQALUIT Churchill, Manitoba Eskimo Pt. Fort Resolution Fort Vermilion Port Alice e Basin Pangnirtung Cum be S o u nr l a n d d Rankin Inlet A Dubawnt L. YELLOWKNIFE Fort Nelson Campbell River nd Coats I. Fort Smith COLUMBIA r Chesterfield Inlet Hay River BRITISH la Southampton Island Hu O rchi Al e x a n d e r A 14 Fox Co N Fort Simpson Dawson Creek Is Prince Charles I. Garry L. Contwoyto L. Great Slave L. Prince George N ec h a k o Queen Charlotte Sound nel St t an ia h Ch is ai ck ot ie Lac la Martre Watson Lake Prince Rupert Kitimat Queen Charlotte Is. fin Bo kenz A MT C IE Teslin L. Mac NZ ll Faro Haines Junction WHITEHORSE Jan 0.3 in (8 mm) July 0.7 in (18 mm) Kugluktuk Great Bear L. KE Pe y Mt. Logan b of in Norman Wells Jan 21°F (-30°C-) July 44°F (7°C) Baf lf Cl YUKON TERRITORY a Dav N U N AV U T AC n ay King W illiam I. M ko Kluane L. 15 to Dawson Yu 13 Prince of Wales I. Victoria Island Amundsen Tuktoyaktuk Gulf NORTHWEST TERRITORIES 8 12 t Inuvik Fort McPherson Old Crow 11 ai B Devon Island Cor nwallis I. nd Resolute Sou Melville I. s te r Lanca d n ou Arctic Bay le S elvil Somerset I. V i sc o u n t M Mc Mackenzie Bay eS tr Bathurst I. Banks Island S E A U F O R T 6 ur n Gu B Cl Parry Islands Estevan ON TA RI O 200 s n Elizabeth Island i 100 Arctic Bay, Nunavut Quee ff 0 C R A 100 200 300 400 500 km I T Axel Heiber g I. C Hay CAN ill OF Ba 0 IC Ne OP O C E land mere Is TR 3 10 L Longest river: Mackenzie, 2,650 miles (4,241 km) Map D9 Highest point: Mt. Logan, 19,850 ft (6,050 m) Map A9 Largest lake: Great Bear Lake, 12,095 sq miles (31,328 sq km) Map D8 s Strait N Elles N CANADA 2 9 K THINGS TO LOOK FOR ON THE MAP CI IC T Nare C AR 7 J RC 1 4 I LE A Sunflower oil is made from the seeds of the tiny central flowers. Selkirk Brandon WINNIPEG I C A A M E R THE PRAIRIES Wheat, the most important crop in Canada, is grown on the fertile grasslands known as the prairies. The province of Saskatchewan is the major producer. Sunflowers and canola are also important crops, grown to make cooking and industrial oils as well as animal feed. NORTH AMERICA CANADA EASTERN CANADA SOME OF THE RICHEST AND POOREST areas of Canada are found within the eastern part of the country. The provinces of Ontario and Québec that lie around the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River form Canada’s wealthy industrial region and contain most of the population. Canada’s capital, Ottawa, and other major cities, including Toronto and Montréal, are in this region. At the end of Lake Erie, on the border with the United States, is Niagara Falls, one of the main tourist attractions in the region. The Atlantic, or maritime, provinces along the stormy east coast have few natural resources and are suffering from a decline in the fishing industry, but enjoy a distinctive culture, and a rugged coastline and landscape. HOCKEY Canadians take advantage of long winters by playing hockey on frozen lakes and ponds, as well as community ice rinks. Hockey is the world’s fastest team game, with the puck moving at speeds of up to 118 miles (190 km) per hour. It can get rough, and the action stops frequently, when players are sent to sit out penalties in the “sin bin.” ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY Completed in 1959, the Great LakesSt. Lawrence Seaway system made it possible for ships to travel 2,342 miles (3,769 km) from the industrial center of North America to the Atlantic Ocean. Ships carrying cargoes of grain, lumber, iron ore, and coal descend 600 ft (183 m) from Lake Ontario to sea level through a system of locks. Tolls are charged for ships that use the system. The Seaway is closed due to ice for four months during the winter. TORONTO On the north shore of Lake Ontario lies Toronto, Canada’s leading industrial city, financial capital, and fastest growing urban area. The city has a reputation for being safe, with the lowest crime rate of any major city in North America. It also boasts the SkyDome, the first stadium with a retractable roof, and the Canadian National (CN) Tower, the world’s second tallest free-standing structure. Golden Horseshoe Oshawa Toronto Brampton Mississauga Oakville L e ak On Niagara-onthe-Lake St. Catherine’s Hamilton t a r io GOLDEN HORSESHOE Canada’s leading industrial region, known as the Golden Horseshoe, curves around the western end of Lake Ontario, from the car-industry center of Oshawa, through Toronto and Hamilton and on to Niagara. Its location makes it easy to move products by water, by railroad, and by road via a major highway called the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW). Plentiful job opportunities attract people here and they earn some of the highest incomes in Canada. C Car assembly G Steelworks i Shipbuilding U Aircraft assembly FFinance mFruit canning Queen Elizab e th W ay Cranberrries are used to make juice, sauces, and syrups. QUÉBEC In 1608, Frenchman Samuel de Champlain set up a fur trading post on the St. Lawrence River at a place the native peoples called Kébec. By 1763, the French settlements had been taken over by the British. Under British control, the province grew into a major commercial center. Today, over 80 percent of Canadians whose native language is French live in the province of Québec. Although laws guarantee the right of French Canadians to their own language, laws, and culture, some Québécois want to separate from the rest of Canada. 28 CRANBERRIES Along the coast of New Brunswick the land is marshy and ideal for growing cranberries. The plants are grown in bogs and the ripe berries are collected by hand or by special machines that scoop the fruit from the water. Berries are ready to pick in September or October. NORTH AMERICA B C D E F CANADA G H I J K L RC LE A IC CI 1 AR C T CANADA Salisbur y I. Hud Nottingham I. son C. Chidley Strai t L A BR Akpatok I. Mansel I. 2 Ung 0 A D ava Bay 0 O R ap isc au Schefferville vi Ri Makkovik Cartwright N E W F O Port Hope U Simpson A N D L A N D B R L Belle I. A A N D Goose Bay O D R Churchill Falls Stra A D A ce N C er n ev A O C isk A en S Kenora C I A A T L ndy b TE S O F A M E 9 S TA a ron Hu UNITED 8 O Lake of the Woods yo fF u L. Seul 7 Ba O N N wa 6 T St. pis k M La A wr N IT O B 5 st Jan 2.9 in (74 mm) July 3.4 in (86 mm) Caniapiscau Res. Grande Rivière de la Baleine Ea b Belcher Is. B a Jan 12°F (-11°C) July 70°F (21°C) Smallwood Res. Ross Bay Junction 300 miles Gander ST. JOHN’S Grand Falls Clarenville Newfoundland on C. Race ds Labrador City Hu Kuujjuarapik d Corner Brook HavreGran s k Saint-Pierre Ban ST PIERRE Manicouagan Channel-PortN Res. La Grande Île n St Pierre aux-Basques ai A Rivière d’Anticosti m & Miquelon E G u l f o f St L a w r e n c e Cabo (France) n Sept-Îles i t S W tra Gaspé Îles de la it L. Mistassini t Madeleine per Attawapiskat Akimiski I. Sydney u Mt. Jacques R e d Cartier James PRINCE è re Bay Rivi EDWARD at Q U É B E C ISLAND CHARLOTTE NEW -TOWN BRUNSWICK Chibougamau Jonquière Chicoutimi Moosonee a t Moncton t Truro A Gouin L. Saint-Jean FREDERICTON HALIFAX Res. T A R I O NOVA SCOTIA Nakina La Tuque L. Abitibi QUÉBEC Cochrane Liverpool Val-d’Or Trois-Rivières L. Nipigon Yarmouth Drummondville Timmins C. Sable Halifax, Nova Scotia Laval Montréal Wawa tta Thunder Bay Gatineau wa Jan 24°F (-4°C) Lake North Bay July 65°F (18°C) Su p e Sault Sainte rior OTTAWA St. Lawrence Sudbury Marie Jan 5.4 in (137 mm) Seaway Kingston (Canal) La July 3.8 in (97 mm) Peterborough ke Barrie e Lak io ar Ont TORONTO Niagara Falls THINGS TO LOOK FOR ON THE MAP Kitchener Hamilton Longest river: St. Lawrence, Canada/US, e i London r E 1,911 miles (3,058 km) Map H6 L. ay Ottawa, Ontario 200 it of Be ll e I s l e xF Gilmour I. CER Inukjuak 4 Hopedale eu ill es Kuujjuaq ni 3 CAN Ca OF au IC è re OP 100 S E A Nain TR N 100 200 300 400 500 km R IC Windsor A Highest point shown: Mt. Jacques Cartier, 4,160 ft (1,268 m) Map I5 Largest lake: L. Superior, Canada/US, 31,820 sq miles (82,414 sq km) Map D8 10 FISHING The Grand Banks area off Newfoundland is one of the world’s richest fishing grounds. In recent years, the seas in this region have been overfished, and there are now limits on how much can be taken from the sea. These restrictions have seriously affected the people of Newfoundland, who rely on fishing to make a living. How acid rain occurs Fumes are pumped into the atmosphere as waste matter. MAPLE TREES Canada produces 75 percent of the world’s maple syrup. Each March the sap of the sugar maple tree is collected and boiled down into syrup. The maple leaf is the national symbol of Canada. Hot gases are converted into acids in the atmosphere. Prevailing winds can carry acids vast distances away from the source. Power plants and factories produce sulfur dioxide. Also, exhaust from cars and trucks produces nitrogen oxide. ACID RAIN Acid rain is a problem in eastern Canada because many of the water and soil systems in this region are not alkaline and so cannot neutralize acid naturally. Acid rain has affected freshwater supplies and killed fish, and has damaged soil, crops, buildings, and the famous sugar maple trees. Although some sources of acid rain originate in Canada, many of the problems come from factories in the United States, where chemical Pollutants fall fumes are carried north as acid rain by the wind. or snow. Acid rain destroys trees and other plants. It kills fish and plant life in lakes and rivers. 29 NORTH AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN LESS THAN 400 YEARS, the United States of UNITED STATES OF AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Capital city: Washington, DC Area: 3,717,792 sq miles (9,626,091 sq km) Population: 294,000,000 Official language: English Major religions: Christian 86%, Jewish 2%, Muslim 2%, other 10% Government: Multiparty democracy Currency: Dollar Adult literacy rate: 99% Life expectancy: 77 years People per doctor: 370 Televisions: 847 per 1,000 people America (USA) has grown from wild countryside inhabited by native peoples to the world’s most powerful industrial nation. The country is made up of 50 states, including Alaska in the far north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. There are two major mountain ranges, the Appalachians to the east and the Rockies to the west, while much of its center is covered by the gently sloping Great Plains. Vast supplies of coal, oil, and minerals, together with mass immigration in the 19th and early 20th centuries, helped business and industry grow fast. Today, American products and culture are recognized throughout the world. This girl has a mother who is part Hawaiian and part Korean. PEOPLE OF THE US People in the US belong to a wide range of different groups and races. Most are descended from immigrants – people who moved there from other parts of the world, such as Europe and Asia. Many African-Americans are descendants of slaves forced to the US in the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries. Today, the population is increasingly Hispanic (Spanish speaking), Asian, and African-American. By 2050, these groups will make up almost half the population. This child has Japanese parents who moved to the US during the 1970s. LIVING IN THE CITY STARS AND STRIPES On the US flag, the stars stand for the 50 modern states, while the stripes represent the original 13 colonies on the East Coast. Until independence in 1776, these were governed by Britain. Today, each state has its own laws but is ruled by the national government in Washington, District of Columbia. African-Americans now make up 13 percent of the population. As cities became more crowded, and land more expensive, architects began to design taller and taller buildings where people could live and work. Almost 80 percent of Americans live in cities or the surrounding suburbs. Most people who live in the suburbs own their own homes and travel to work by car. New Skyscrapers, such as the York is the biggest city, with Empire State Building, now dominate the skyline of more than 22 million most cities in the US. inhabitants, followed by Los Angeles, and then Chicago. People from different backgrounds mingle in most cities. Often they have their own neighborhoods, with names such as Little Italy or Chinatown. This view shows midtown Manhattan, New York. 30 Every day, half a million people use Grand Central Station to get to work. WORLD LEADER The US is the world’s richest country, and its leading products include iron and steel, lumber and paper products, electronic equipment, cars, and aircraft, shown above. These industries create many jobs, and women now make up almost half of the country’s total workforce. Many US cities are laid out on a simple grid system where main roads, or avenues, run north to south, and streets run east to west. Americans live in a variety of homes – single-family homes, townhouses, and high-rise apartment buildings. Places of worship, like the Holy Family Church, can be found in every city. NORTH AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA MOVING WEST The population of the US has always been mobile, moving to new states in search of work or a better lifestyle. Major events, such as the Great Depression in the 1930s, also forced people to move in the hope of finding work. The general pattern of movement since settlers first arrived is shown on this map. Over the past 30 years or so, more and more people have moved to the “Sun Belt” states of the South and West. These include California, Arizona, Texas, and Florida. During the mid-1800s, the prospect of finding gold and the spread of the railroads lured people west. By 1920, the aircraft and film industries attracted people to Seattle and Los Angeles. Anchorage ALASKA Gr Seattle Chicago es Buffalo Cleveland Indianopolis Denver San Jose St. Louis Boston New York Philadelphia Pittsburgh Cincinnati Baltimore San Francisco Atlanta San Diego Dallas-Ft. Worth Phoenix M E X I C O Maui Hawaii ak Detroit Oahu HAWAII tL Minneapolis Los Angeles Kauai ea By 1870, the rapid growth of industry had attracted people to the northeast in search of work. Goods could be moved to their destination via rivers and the Great Lakes. Jacksonville New Orleans San Antonio By 1970, high oil prices had boosted the Texas economy. The warm climate and better quality of life also tempted people to move to other cities in the south and west. Cheap labor from Mexico was important, too. Houston Miami Between 1600 and 1820 about 1.3 million immigrants arrived from northern Europe. They created towns, later cities, along the east and south coasts. During this time, 1.5 million slaves were brought from Africa. Major cities that have grown up over the last 50 years THE FIRST AMERICANS Native Americans, the first inhabitants of the US, today make up less than 1 percent of the population. When Europeans arrived in the 1500s, Native American tribes were decimated by disease. They lost many of their homelands and were forced over time to live on reservations – land allotted to them by the government. Despite these hardships, many tribal traditions and languages still survive. NATIONAL PARKS Large areas of the country’s most spectacular countryside are protected in more than 350 national parks. Yellowstone National Park, in Wyoming and Montana, was the first park to open, in 1872. Yellowstone provides a safe environment for animals, including bison, elk, antelope, grizzly bear, moose, and deer. LARGEST TRIBES This Zuni artist, a member of the Pueblo tribe, makes and sells silver and turquoise jewelry. BASEBALL Baseball is the country’s national sport. The first game played between two organized teams took place in New Jersey in 1846. The National League was formed in 1876, the American League in 1901, and today baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the US. It is traditional for the president to pitch the first ball at the start of each new baseball season. AMERICAN CULTURE The influence of US culture can be seen all over the world. Fast foods, such as hamburgers, hot dogs, and soft drinks, as well as characters from films and TV shows, are recognized in cities from Berlin to Beijing. This “selling of America” is a billion-dollar industry and plays a vital part in the US economy. 31 Cherokee Navajo Chippewa Sioux Choctaw Pueblo 308,000 219,000 104,000 103,000 82,000 53,000 Strawberry milkshake Double hamburger Find out more NATIVE PEOPLES: 22–23 SETTLING THE CONTINENT: 23, 24–25 US GOVERNMENT: 23, 270 NORTH AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA US:WESTERN STATES FROM THE ICY LANDSCAPE OF ALASKA, through the deserts of Nevada and Arizona, to the semitropical islands of Hawaii, the western states cover a dramatic range of scenery. Along the West Coast, large cities such as Seattle, Portland, and San Francisco ship lumber, fish, and fruit all over the world. The West is also home to Hollywood, capital of the multimillion dollar movie industry, and Silicon Valley, a stretch of northern California that lies at the heart of the high-tech computer business. Sun Valley, in Idaho, ranks as one of the country’s leading ski and summer resorts. EARTHQUAKE COUNTRY People in California have to live with the constant threat of earthquakes. The area lies on the boundary, or fault line, between two plates of the Earth’s crust. When these plates push and slide against each other, it causes earthquakes, which can destroy roads and homes. It is difficult to predict an earthquake, so most people keep a survival kit in case they are trapped or left without supplies. Some of the items included in such a kit are displayed here. Bar of dried food with vitamins Heavy-duty flashlight Mini rolls of toilet paper Towelette N San Francisco CA n Sa LI EV FO s ea I F dr An C ult Fa I Packet of pure drinking water AD RN Disposable toothbrush with toothpaste A Light sticks work for 12 hours and do not need batteries. IA C Major fault Lightweight bag of emergency items, including first-aid supplies (not shown) OREGON P A FAULT LINES The San Andreas Fault runs for 750 miles (1,207 km) across California, passing through the cities of San Francisco and Los Angeles. There are also hundreds of other smaller faults that constantly cause minor tremors. THE NORTHERN FORESTS Great forests of pine, cedar, and fir trees thrive in the wet climate near the coasts of Oregon and Washington. These states are the country’s major suppliers of lumber and wood pulp. The trees are cut into logs and transported by road to the coast. Environmental groups are now trying to protect the trees, many of which are more than 200 years old. Minor faults O C Los Angeles E A N MEXIC O Emergency blanket designed to reflect body heat FIELDS OF PLENTY SOUTH OF THE BORDER The majority of immigrants living in the western states come from nearby Mexico. They are called Hispanics because their ancestors came from Spain and they speak Spanish. Many still follow the religion and festivals of Mexico. Hispanics also arrive from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and El Salvador. Fertile soil, plenty of sunshine, and water, diverted from rivers that flow from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, make California the leading agricultural state. The land is used to grow more than 40 percent of the fresh fruit and vegetables eaten in the US, such as peaches, oranges, and strawberries, as well as artichokes and brussels sprouts. Mexicans often cross into the country illegally to find work on the fruit farms. The Napa Valley, north of San Francisco, is an important grape-growing and wine-producing area. 32 CAR CULTURE When Henry Ford introduced the first cheap car in 1910, it promised freedom on the open road. Today, there are more cars on the road in the US than in any other country. Networks of six-lane highways weave across cities such as Los Angeles, shown above. Fumes from the cars contribute to city smog problems. CARS PER 100 PEOPLE US France Denmark Brazil India 77 47 35 14 0.7 NORTH AMERICA Strait ing er ALASKA Fairbanks Nome Aleutian Islan ds Mt. McKinley (Denali) AS CANADA K L Jan -11°F (-24°C) July 60°F (16°C) b Jan 0.9 in (23 mm) July 1.9 in (48 mm) TR PA C I F I C O C E A N 0 0 C 150 km 50 AR C T Valdez A 100 miles N A D OP IC OF CAN A CER WASHINGTON Boise, Idaho Everett Bellevue O N Jan 1.9 in (48 mm) July 0.2 in (5 mm) A U E M T O N T I N S L AG R Ogden SALT LAKE CITY Orem er Provo IE A S I N R R N UTAH Ely G A CARSON CITY L. Tahoe SACRAMENTO Salina E NEVADA COLORADO P L AT E A U S N E CA S a n J u an L. Powell D A LI VA FO Fresno C O L O R A D O S Pyramid L. B Reno W Y O M I N G A C A S C A D E S. M LT SA ER T S T E E A D Great E Salt L. K BLACK ROCK DESER T San Jose Grand Canyon L. Mead Las Vegas IN D N E W TE IA P A R N Bakersfield DE E Kauai Oahu 14 A IFI C San Diego H A WAII 100 200 300 km 200 miles OC EA Maui o PHOENIX SONORAN DESERT Mesa Tucson M E X I Honolulu, Hawaii N Hilo b Jan 72°F (22°C) July 77°F (25°C) Jan 4.1 in (104 mm) July 0.9 in (23 mm) 0 100 a Hawaii 0 33 Colorad Salton Sea N HONOLULU L án a i 100 Oceanside ARIZONA M E X I C O C C PA C Niihau E DESER T Oxnard San Bernardino Los Angeles Santa Ana Long Beach RT I 13 SE I F M O J AV O 0 b Idaho Falls G R E A T 12 15 Jan 30°F (-1°C) July 74°F (23°C) Pocatello Twin Falls Eureka 0 a Y Sun Valley Nampa Winnemucca Santa Rosa N TA R A N G E M K IDAHO BOISE Goose L. Alturas 10 Cactus plants can survive the desert heat. This extraordinary road runner rarely flies, but can run very fast. It uses its long tail as a brake, or as a rudder to change direction. Day e Snak Stockton Concord San Francisco Oakland 11 The collared lizard of the southwestern deserts hides under a rock at night and comes out in the morning to warm up in the sun. hn Burns Medford R A 9 C 8 Jo C P A LIVING IN THE DESERT The Sonoran Desert was once home only to creatures adapted to the heat. Today, Phoenix, Arizona, is one of the fastest-growing US cities, despite its location in the middle of the desert. Between 1960–1990, its population grew by more than 300 percent. Part of the reason why the Colorado River fails to reach the ocean is because of demands for water from Phoenix. Lewiston mbia OREGON Eugene O Portland SALEM Coeur d'Alene Snake Colu S T C O A 7 OLYMPIA Corvalis O C E A N Longest river: Colorado, USA/Mexico, 2,253 km (1,400 miles) Map I12 Highest point: Mt. McKinley (Denali), 6,194 m (20,320 ft) Map C2 Largest lake: Great Salt Lake, 3,525 sq km (1,361 sq miles) Map J8 World’s largest land gorge: Grand Canyon, 349 km (217 miles) long, 1,900 m (6,234 ft) deep Map J10 Spokane Seattle Tacoma R I F I C P A C THINGS TO LOOK FOR ON THE MAP 6 J RC n GE RAN K A Anchorage a 4 5 I UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Fairbanks, Alaska Alaska lf of KA A JUNEAU Gu A S U L Kodiak I. AL INS N PE BERING SEA H BLU 3 G CI Prudhoe Bay BROOKS RANGE AL B F RT SEA ko RUSSIAN FEDERATION AUFO Yu 2 BE E IC 1 D LE C Riv B UNITED STATES OF AMERICA G re e n A 50 200 100 150 300 km 200 miles C O N NORTH AMERICA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA US:CENTRAL STATES Sheaves of the type of wheat used for making bread FAMOUS FOR COWBOYS AND CATTLE RANCHES, the central states of the US are also the country’s “bread basket” and oil refinery. This vast region includes high mountains, fertile plains, and the Mississippi River system. Texas and Oklahoma have major oil and gas fields, while coal is mined in Wyoming and Montana. The Rocky Mountains contain important national parks, such as Yellowstone and Glacier, and are rich in mineral resources. Hot summers and cold winters, as well as violent hailstorms and tornadoes, make the region’s climate one of extremes. THE GREAT PLAINS Once home to millions of buffalo, the vast open plains between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River are now planted with cereal grains. Farmers on the Great Plains produce more wheat and corn than anywhere else on Earth. Farming is highly mechanized, with huge machines to harvest the grain. In drier parts, the land can be farmed only if it is irrigated, often using water taken from a natural underground reservoir, called an aquifer. TORNADO ALLEY Several hundred tornadoes a year strike “Tornado Alley,” an area that runs through Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. They occur when hot air from the Gulf of Mexico hits cold, dry air from Canada. The violent storms, known as “twisters,” cut through towns and countryside, destroying everything in their path. RURAL AMERICA Today, most Americans live in cities and towns, but at the start of the 20th century, two out of every five adults lived on farms. There are still many small towns with populations of less than 10,000 people. These towns are often in farming country and are where people go for supplies, to attend school, church, or special events, such as this fair. The air spirals up the column and sucks up dirt and objects in its way. A twisting column of rising air forms beneath a thunder cloud. Tornadoes can travel at 112 mph (180 km/h). Hats keep off the sun and the rain, and were once used to carry water. COWBOY COUNTRY Cattle are raised on the Great Plains and foothills of the Rocky Mountains. In summer, cowboys on horseback used to drive the cattle to fresh pastures; in winter, they herded them back to the ranch to be sold at auction for food. Hollywood movies turned cowboys into heroes, but life in the saddle was not easy. Pay was poor, and men often spent 15 hours a day on horseback in scorching heat or driving rain. Today, ranches are smaller and cowboys and horses may be ferried from ranch to pasture by truck and trailer. Leather cuffs A lasso is used to rope cattle. Chaps protect the rider from cattle horns. Fringe helps to drain away any rainwater. Grains of wheat Spurs Boots have heels to keep feet firmly in the stirrups. CITIES OF THE DEAD Cemeteries in New Orleans are built above ground to protect them when the Mississippi floods. The burial grounds are called Cities of the Dead. A wreath of flowers 34 MISSISSIPPI RIVER From Minnesota in the north to its enormous delta in the Gulf of Mexico, the mighty Mississippi River flows through the central states. It is one of the world’s busiest waterways, suitable for cargo boats for almost 1,802 miles (2,900 km). This view of the river shows it flowing through Iowa, where it forms a natural border with Illinois and Wisconsin. In the south, severe flooding often occurs after heavy rains. NORTH AMERICA D C 1 A F N G A Great Falls Grand Forks on st lo DS Ye l AN BA Y a SAN I JU AN Cedar Rapids Davenport SM KANSAS Independence M is OKY HILLS Kansas City TOPEKA Ar M ka ns JEFFERSON CITY as s o u ri St.