Main Timelines of Everything
Timelines of EverythingDK Publishing
Explore an illustrated history of the world through more than 130 timelines for kids. From dinosaurs and Vikings to the history of cinema and espionage, discover incredible world history in this lavish collection of timelines.
Jam-packed with surprising facts and amazing details, such as the most bloodthirsty pirate of all time and the first crime to be solved by studying fingerprints,Timelines of Everythingwill take you on a whirlwind journey through an illustrated history of time, from the Big Bang to the modern world.
More than 130 timelines give you all the general knowledge you need - and even some surprising trivia you don't! Must-know topics and alternative history are showcased with beautiful, detailed illustrations and straightforward, easy-to-read text. Whether you want to know key breakthroughs that set the Industrial Revolution in motion or defining moments in the history of fashion, you'll find it all here. With timelines on a diverse range of subjects,Timelines of Everythingis the ultimate guide to history for kids.
Jam-packed with surprising facts and amazing details, such as the most bloodthirsty pirate of all time and the first crime to be solved by studying fingerprints,Timelines of Everythingwill take you on a whirlwind journey through an illustrated history of time, from the Big Bang to the modern world.
More than 130 timelines give you all the general knowledge you need - and even some surprising trivia you don't! Must-know topics and alternative history are showcased with beautiful, detailed illustrations and straightforward, easy-to-read text. Whether you want to know key breakthroughs that set the Industrial Revolution in motion or defining moments in the history of fashion, you'll find it all here. With timelines on a diverse range of subjects,Timelines of Everythingis the ultimate guide to history for kids.
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TIMELINES OF EVERYTHING US_001_Half_title.indd 1 06/06/2018 14:27 TIMELINES OF EVERYTHING US_002-003_Title.indd 2 06/06/2018 14:46 TIMELINES OF EVERYTHING s m i t h s o n i a n US_002-003_Title.indd 3 06/06/2018 15:33 PREHISTOR Y Senior Art Editor Smiljka Surla Senior Editor Sam Atkinson Project Editors Steven Carton, Ben Ffrancon Davies, Sarah Edwards, Sarah MacLeod, Ben Morgan, Sophie Parkes, Laura Sandford, Pauline Savage, Amanda Wyatt US Editors Kayla Dugger, Christy Lusiak Project Designers Sunita Gahir, Alex Lloyd, Gregory McCarthy, Stefan Podhorodecki, Michelle Staples, Jacqui Swan, Sadie Thomas Illustrators Acute Graphics, Peter Bull, Edwood Burn, Sunita Gahir, Clare Joyce, KJA Artists, Arran Lewis, Alex Lloyd, Maltings Partnership, Gus Scott DK Media Archive Romaine Werblow Picture Researchers Sarah Hopper, Jo Walton Managing Editor Lisa Gillespie Managing Art Editor Owen Peyton Jones Producers, Pre-Production David Almond, Andy Hilliard Senior Producers Alex Bell, Mary Slater Jacket Designers Surabhi Wadhwa-Gandhi, Juhi Sheth, Smiljka Surla Jackets Design Development Manager Sophia MTT Jackets Editor Amelia Collins Publisher Andrew Macintyre Art Director Karen Self Associate Publishing Director Liz Wheeler Design Director Phil Ormerod Publishing Director Jonathan Metcalf Consultant Philip Parker Contributors Laura Buller, Peter Chrisp, Alexander Cox, Susan Kennedy, Andrea Mills, Sally Regan DK Delhi DTP Designers Jaypal Singh Chauhan, Syed Mohammed Farhan Senior DTP Designers Neeraj Bhatia, Jagtar Singh Jackets Designer Juhi Sheth Jacket Senior DTP Designer Harish Aggarwal Jacket DTP Designer Rakesh Kumar Jackets Editorial Coordinator Priyanka Sharma Managing Jackets Editor Saloni Singh First American Edition, 2018 Published in the United States by DK Publishing 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 Copyright © 2018 Dorling Kindersley Limited DK, a Division of Penguin Random House LLC 18 19 20 21 22 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 001–306015–Oct/2018 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under the copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: 978-1-4654-7493-3 DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 345 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 [email protected] Printed and bound in the United Arab Emirates A WORLD OF IDEAS: SEE ALL THERE IS TO KNOW www.dk.com THE SMITHSONIAN Established in 1846, the Smithsonian—the world’s largest museum and research complex—includes 19 museums and galleries and the National Zoological Park. The total number of artifacts, works of art, and specimens in the Smithsonian’s collection is estimated at 154 million. The Smithsonian is a renowned research center, dedicated to public education, national service, and scholarship in the arts, sciences, and history. Traveling through time The earliest events in this book took place a very long time ago. Some dates may be followed by bya, short for “billion years ago,” mya, short for “million years ago,” or ya, short for “years ago.” Other dates have bce and ce after them. These are short for “before the Common Era” and “Common Era.” The Common Era dates from when people think Jesus was born. Where the exact date of an event is not known, “c.” is used. This is short for the Latin word circa, meaning “around,” and indicates that the date is approximate. US_004-007_Contents.indd 4 17/07/2018 16:38 TH E A NCIENT WORLD 3000 bce– 500 ce 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 PREHISTOR Y BEFORE 3000 bce 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 The story of the Universe Life on Earth The age of dinosaurs End of the dinosaurs Human ancestors Agriculture Working with metals Towns and cities The story of the wheel The written word Mesopotamia Fun and games Ancient Egypt Ancient monuments The Great Sphinx Sharing stories Jewelry The story of sports Ancient Greece Mathematics The story of democracy Rise of the Celts The Persian Empire The Battle of Issus The story of philosophy The story of sculpture Early Imperial China Measuring time The Roman Empire Roman technology Religion The destruction of Pompeii Fun and festivals Ancient Indian empires The transformation of the Roman Empire US_004-007_Contents.indd 5 17/07/2018 16:38 TH E A GE OF EXPLORATION TH E MEDIEVAL W OR LD 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 117 118 120 122 124 126 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 1450–1750 500–1450 T H E AGE OF REVO LU TI O N China’s Golden Ages Early Islamic empires Empires of the Americas Germanic peoples Medieval Europe The Battle of Crécy The Vikings The Crusades Kingdoms of Southeast Asia Angkor Wat Rise of the samurai Castles Early North America Settling the Pacific The colonization of the Pacific African kingdoms The Mongol Empire Maps and mapmaking Plagues and epidemics Weapons and armor Technology of writing Ships Renaissance Exploring the world A route to India The story of painting The Reformation Spanish America The fall of Tenochtitlán The Ottoman Empire Astronomy Big battles The Battle of Lepanto Edo Japan Colonial America The Scientific Revolution Slavery in the US The Mughal Empire Ming and Qing China Chemistry The story of dance The Golden Age of Piracy US_004-007_Contents.indd 6 17/07/2018 16:38 AFTER 1914 1750–1914 T H E AGE OF REVO LU TI O N TH E M ODERN WORLD 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 197 198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 215 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 248 250 251 252 254 256 258 260 262 264 266 268 269 270 272 274 276 277 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310 312 314 The Enlightenment The Great Lisbon Earthquake Natural disasters The story of music Imperial Russia Birth of the US Crossing the Delaware River The Industrial Revolution Aboriginal Australia The colonization of Australia The Storming of the Bastille The French Revolution Medicine The Napoleonic Wars South American independence Trains Spreading the news Engineering The US frontier Frontier wars The 1848 Revolutions Biology The British Empire The American Civil War Colonialism in Africa Telecommunications Photography Crime detection Aircraft and aviation Getting the vote Physics Cars Great adventures The voyage of R.M.S. Titanic World War I The 1920s The 1930s Archaeology The Soviet Union The story of skyscrapers World War II in Europe War at home The Holocaust The D-Day landings The Pacific War Indian independence African independence The story of spying Middle East conflicts Household appliances The Korean War The Vietnam War The 1960s Postcolonial Africa The Cold War Race to the Moon Apollo launches The Cuban Missile Crisis The Civil Rights Movement Fashion Space exploration Booming nations Computing Feminism The internet Youth culture The story of robotics US presidents British rulers Glossary Index US_004-007_Contents.indd 7 17/07/2018 16:38 8 PREHISTORY Before 3000 BCE US_008-009_Prehistory_opener.indd 8 04/06/2018 15:13 US_008-009_Prehistory_opener.indd 9 04/06/2018 15:13 10 Prehistory The period before written records were invented around 5,000 years ago is known as prehistory. Most of what we know about this time comes from remains left behind, such as tools, bones, and ruined buildings. Until recently, it was difficult to tell how old these objects were, but scientific advances have allowed us to put together a much clearer picture of not only human history, but also the origin of life on Earth, and even of the Universe itself. 13.5 billion years ago The first stars are born. 4.3 billion years ago Life begins on Earth. 252 million years ago Dinosaurs become the dominant life form on Earth. 1 million years ago The ancestors of humans begin to use fire. 66 million years ago The dinosaurs die out in a mass extinction event. 200,000 years ago Modern humans first appear in Africa. 4.6 billion years ago The Sun, planets, and other objects that make up our solar system are formed. 13.8 billion years ago The Universe comes into existence with the Big Bang. 7–6 million years ago Apes in Africa evolve the ability to walk upright. The Big Bang The Universe started with the Big Bang (see pages 12–13). Over billions of years, stars, galaxies, and eventually our own solar system were formed. Early life The first forms of life on Earth were simple organisms, but they evolved over time into the many varieties of plants and animals known today (see pages 14–15). Dinosaurs Millions of years ago, dinosaurs walked, swam, or flew on Earth (see pages 16–17). Until they became extinct, they were the dominant animals on the planet. Early humans The ancestors of humans, known as hominins, evolved from tree-dwelling apes (see pages 20–21). Over time, they began to use tools and make fire. US_010-011_Prehistory_intro.indd 10 15/06/2018 15:09 11 c.9000 bce Metalworking begins in Mesopotamia in West Asia. 9000–4000 bce Early farmers establish the first villages. c.4000 bce The first great cities arise in Mesopotamia. c.3500 bce The first wheels used for transportation appear in Mesopotamia. c.8000 bce Communities begin to construct walls around their settlements. c.11,000–9000 bce The development of farming allows people to produce their own food. c.3300 bce The Egyptians develop hieroglyphs, the first system of writing. Settling down Early humans moved from place to place in search of food. With the development of farming (see pages 22–23), people built villages and worked the land. Working with metal As humans discovered the technology of creating items from copper, bronze, and iron (see pages 24–25), they crafted stronger tools and weapons. The first cities Some villages continued to grow, becoming towns and eventually cities (see pages 26–27). These population hubs were bustling centers of trade. Writing With the invention of writing (see pages 30–31), people could leave records to be read by later generations. The period known as prehistory came to an end. The wheel One of the most important technological developments of the prehistoric era was the wheel (see pages 28–29). Invented independently by different cultures around the world, the wheel revolutionized transportation. It was also crucial to later advancements in farming, construction, industry, and engineering. US_010-011_Prehistory_intro.indd 11 15/06/2018 15:09 12 The story of the Universe The Universe began 13.8 bill ion years ago in an event called the Big Bang. The Big Bang was not an explosion of matter in space, but the sudden appearance and expansion of space itself. The expansion has continued ever since, creating a cosmos of unimaginable vastness. Although light travels extremely quickly, it stil l takes it bill ions of years to cross the Universe. This means that peering into deep space allows us to look back in time and study the Universe’s early years. Matter forms Within a second, the incredible energy of the expanding Universe produces tiny particles of matter. Most of these collide, destroy each other, and vanish, but a tiny fraction remain. These leftovers build up to form larger particles called protons and neutrons—the building blocks of atoms. First atoms It takes 300,000 years for the Universe to cool sufficiently for protons and neutrons to form the first atoms: hydrogen and helium. These gases form a thin cloud that fills the Universe. Light can now travel freely, making space transparent. This ancient light can still be captured by astronomers today. Stars and galaxies Gravity pulls thicker areas of gas into clumps that get tighter and tighter. This heats their cores, triggering nuclear reactions, and so giving birth to stars. The newborn stars cluster by the billion in vast whirlpools—galaxies. 13.7997 billion years ago 12 The Big Bang The Universe materializes out of nothing. It is smaller than an atom but has all the energy and mass it will ever have. In the first trillionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second, it expands to the size of a football—a process known as inflation. 1 second later13.8 billion years ago 12 13.5 billion years ago US_012-013_Universe.indd 12 04/06/2018 15:13 13 The Solar System Our local star, the Sun, forms from a cloud of gas and dust left by dying stars. Not all the material is absorbed by the new star though—a gigantic disk of dust and gas is left in orbit around it. Over time, the particles of matter in this disk stick together to form the planets, moons, asteroids, and comets of our Solar System. Life begins Farther from the Sun than scalding Venus but not as far as freezing Mars, planet Earth is just the right temperature for liquid water to settle on its surface. A random chemical reaction between carbon-based chemicals in the water produces a molecule that can make copies of itself, as DNA can today. It is the first form of life. The Sun dies About 5 billion years in the future, the Sun will turn into a red giant star as its supply of fuel begins to run out. It will swell in size, its outer layers engulfing the planets Mercury, Venus, and probably Earth. The heat will vaporize any water left on Earth, and possibly our planet’s crust, too, making life impossible. The Big Freeze The Universe may continue expanding forever. Matter and energy will become ever more thinly dispersed, preventing new stars from forming. After the last star burns out, the Universe will be permanently dark and freezing cold—an endless void with no activity. 4.6 billion years ago 13 YOU ARE HERE 13 4.3 billion years ago 5 billion years in the future Over 100 trillion years in the future US_012-013_Universe.indd 13 04/06/2018 15:13 14 P re hi st or ic ra in fo re st s E ar th ’s c lim at e is n ow w ar m a nd w et , an d lu sh ra in fo re st s co ve r m uc h of th e la nd . T he fo re st s ar e ho m e to gi an t m ill ip ed es a nd d ra go nf ly lik e in se ct s as b ig a s ea gl es . F os si ls o f t he tr ee s w ill e ve nt ua lly fo rm th e co al w e us e in th e m od er n w or ld . 3 5 9 –2 9 9 M YA R ep ti le s an d re la ti ve s E ar th ’s c lim at e d rie s ou t, an d d es er ts re p la ce fo re st s. R ep til es a nd re la te d an im al s ca lle d s yn ap si d s b ec o m e th e d o m in an t v er te b ra te s on la nd . U nl ik e ot he r v er te b ra te s, w hi ch b re ed in w at er , re pt ile s an d s yn ap si d s la y w at er p ro of eg gs a nd s o ca n b re ed in d ry p la ce s. 2 9 9 –2 5 2 M YA T he ri se o f m am m al s S m al l m am m al s su rv iv e th e as te ro id s tr ik e an d e vo lv e in to a w id e ra ng e of n ew s p ec ie s, ta ki ng th e p la ce o f d in os au rs . S om e m am m al s ad ap t t o lif e in th e oc ea n an d b ec om e ev en b ig ge r t ha n d in os au rs . 6 6 –3 M YA T he G re at D yi ng T he g re at es t m as s ex tin ct io n in hi st o ry o cc ur s b ef o re th e ag e of d in os au rs . A ro un d 9 5 p er ce nt o f th e w or ld ’s s p ec ie s d is ap p ea r. It ta ke s al m os t 3 0 m ill io n ye ar s fo r l ife o n la nd to re co ve r. 2 5 2 M YA 6 6 M YA T he Ic e A ge E ar th ’s c lim at e co ol s an d s he et s of ic e co ve r m uc h of th e no rt he rn co nt in en ts . T he g ra ss la nd s so ut h of th e ic e ar e ho m e to m am m ot hs , w oo lly rh in os , s ab er -t oo th ed c at s, an d o th er ic e- ag e m am m al s. M an y of th es e sp ec ie s va ni sh a s hu m an s sp re ad a ro un d th e gl ob e. 2 .6 M YA to 1 0 ,0 0 0 B C E 2 3 0 –6 5 M YA F ir st s te p s on la nd Fo ur -l eg ge d v er te b ra te s ev ol ve fr om fi sh . A t f irs t t he y us e th ei r m us cu la r l im b s fo r pa d d lin g, b ut th ei r d es ce nd an ts e ve nt ua lly cl am b er o nt o la nd in s ea rc h of p re y. P la nt s ha ve n ow c ol on iz ed th e la nd , a nd s m al l an im al s su ch a s m ill ip ed es , m ite s, a nd sc or p io ns li ve a m on g th em . 3 6 3 M YA A ge o f t he D in os au rs D in os au rs b ec o m e th e d om in an t a ni m al s on la nd . B ird s ev ol ve fr om s m al l fe at he re d d in os au rs , a nd th e fir st s m al l m am m al s ev o lv e fr om s yn ap si d s. P oi so ne d o ce an s A no th er m as s ex tin ct io n ta ke s p la ce ne ar th e en d o f t he D ev on ia n P er io d . M os t o f t he s p ec ie s th at v an is h liv ed in th e oc ea n, in cl ud in g re ef -b ui ld in g or ga ni sm s an d a rm or ed fi sh . P oi so ni ng o f t he o ce an b y vo lc an ic er up tio ns m ay b e to b la m e. D ea th o f t he d in os au rs A b ou t h al f t he w or ld ’s a ni m al sp ec ie s d is ap p ea r i n a m as s ex tin ct io n at th e en d o f t he a ge of d in os au rs . T he li ke ly c au se is a n as te ro id h itt in g E ar th . 3 6 0 M YA US_014-015_Life_on_Earth.indd 14 06/06/2018 14:27 S no w b al l E ar th E ar th ’s s ur fa ce fr ee ze s an d a th ic k la ye r o f i ce e nc as es th e w ho le p la ne t f or m ill io ns o f y ea rs . L ife o n th e su rf ac e is w ip ed o ut d ur in g th is “S no w ba ll E ar th ” p er io d , b ut m ic ro or ga ni sm s su rv iv e un d er th e ic e in th e oc ea n. 78 0 –6 3 0 m ill io n ye ar s ag o (m ya ) F ir st a ni m al s S oo n af te r t he S no w ba ll er a en d s, co m p le x or ga ni sm s th at m ay b e th e fir st a ni m al s ap p ea r. T he y ar e so ft - b od ie d , l ea f- sh ap ed c re at ur es w ith n o ob vi ou s or ga ns , l im b s, o r m ou th pa rt s. T he y p ro ba b ly li ve o n th e oc ea n flo or an d fe ed o n pa rt ic le s of fo od ab so rb ed th ro ug h th ei r s ki n. 6 0 0 M YA A n ex p lo si on o f l if e T he fi rs t a ni m al s w ith h ar d b od y ca se s, jo in te d le gs , b iti ng m ou th pa rt s, a nd gr ip p in g cl aw s ap p ea r. T hi s ap pa re nt ly su d d en b ur st o f e vo lu tio n, c al le d th e C am b ria n ex p lo si on , g iv es ri se to a ll th e m aj or ty p es o f i nv er te b ra te an im al s al iv e to d ay . 5 4 1 M YA F ir st v er te b ra te s T he fi rs t v er te b ra te s— an im al s w ith b ac kb on es — ap p ea r. T he y ar e fis hl ik e an im al s th at s w im lik e ta d p ol es a nd h av e si m p le m ou th s fo r s uc ki ng . L at er , t he ir d es ce nd an ts e vo lv e hi ng ed ja w s, a llo w in g th em to g ra b p re y an d te ar fl es h. 5 2 5 M YA 4 4 4 M YA T he a ge o f f is h F is h ru le th e oc ea n in th e D ev on ia n P er io d , w hi ch is a ls o ca lle d th e ag e of fi sh . S ha rk s ar e no w c om m on , b ut th e m o st fe ar so m e p re d at o r i s D un kl eo st eu s, a 2 0 ft (6 m ) l on g p re d at or w ith a n ar m or ed b od y an d hu ge ja w s eq ui p p ed w ith a fl es h- cu tt in g b ea k. 4 19 –3 5 9 M YA O ri gi n of li fe L ife b eg in s in w at er , p os si b ly ne ar h ot v ol ca ni c sp rin gs in th e d ee p o ce an . T he fi rs t l ife fo rm s ar e ca rb on -b as ed m ol ec ul es th at h av e th e ab ili ty to m ak e co p ie s of th em se lv es . O nc e th ey s ta rt m ul tip ly in g, th e p ro ce ss o f e vo lu tio n b eg in s, an d th e se lf- co py in g m ol ec ul es b ec om e m or e co m p le x. 4 .3 b ill io n ye ar s ag o (b ya ) 3 .7 B YA F ir st c el ls S in gl e- ce lle d o rg an is m s ev ol ve . T he y w ill b e th e on ly fo rm s of li fe on E ar th fo r m o st o f t he p la ne t’s hi st or y. M an y gr ow in m ou nd s on th e oc ea n flo or , u si ng s un lig ht to p ho to sy nt he si ze . T he y re le as e th e ga s ox yg en a s a w as te , ch an gi ng E ar th ’s a tm os p he re . D ea th in th e oc ea n A ro un d 8 5 p er ce nt o f a ll m ar in e sp ec ie s d is ap p ea r i n a se rie s of m aj or e xt in ct io ns . T he c au se is u nk no w n, b ut so m e sc ie nt is ts s us p ec t cl im at e ch an ge is to b la m e. Li fe o n E ar th A ft er o ce an s fir st fo rm ed o n E ar th , i t d id n’ t t ak e lo ng fo r l ife to ap p ea r o n th e p la ne t. H ow li fe b eg an re m ai ns o ne o f t he g re at m ys te ri es o f s ci en ce , b ut m o st s ci en tis ts b el ie ve th e fir st li vi ng th in g s d ev el o p ed fr o m c ar b o n- b as ed c he m ic al s in w at er . N o tr ac e of th es e re m ai ns , b ut th e an im al s an d p la nt s th at e vo lv ed fr o m th em le ft n um er o us fo ss ils b eh in d . T he fo ss il re co rd sh ow s th at th e st o ry o f l ife o n E ar th h as h ad tw is ts a nd tu rn s, w ith o cc as io na l m as s ex tin ct io ns w ip in g o ut th e d o m in an t sp ec ie s an d a llo w in g n ew fo rm s of li fe to e m er g e. D un kl eo st eu s US_014-015_Life_on_Earth.indd 15 06/06/2018 14:27 16 The age of dinosaurs Modern humans have existed for about 200,000 years, but dinosaurs dominated life on Earth for nearly 200 mill ion years. This vast span of time is called the Mesozoic Era and is divided into three distinct periods. The reign of the dinosaurs and other giant reptiles came to an abrupt end in a mass extinction 66 mill ion years ago, but not every kind of dinosaur was wiped out. 240 million years ago 220 210 200 190 180 170 150160 Triassic Period The first dinosaurs appear in the middle of the Triassic Period. They are small, nimble animals that scamper on powerful hind legs, using their stiff tails to balance and their small arms to handle food. This successful formula soon leads to variations. Some dinosaurs evolve into plant-eaters, growing longer necks that help them reach leaves or armored skin for protection. Others specialize in hunting. While dinosaurs rule the land, other prehistoric reptiles adapt to life in the ocean and air. Jurassic Period In the Jurassic Period, plant-eating dinosaurs reach gigantic sizes, making them the largest animals ever to walk on Earth. Exactly why this happens isn’t clear, but one theory is that predators target smaller animals, driving a process of natural selection that makes both prey and predator become larger and larger. Meanwhile, the smallest dinosaurs evade predators by taking flight—they evolve into the first birds. 16 Anchiornis Stegosaurus Nothosaurus Mixosaurus Eoraptor Plateosaurus Isanosaurus Coelophysis Scelidosaurus Cryolophosaurus Rhamphorhynchus Liopleurodon Eudimorphodon US_016-017_Dinosaurs.indd 16 04/06/2018 15:13 17 150 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 Cretaceous Period During the Cretaceous Period, Earth’s continents slowly drift toward their current configuration, moving about as fast as human toenails grow. There are now more kinds of dinosaurs than ever, including flightless, feathered giants and small but ferocious carnivores with hooklike foot claws that might be used to disembowel prey. At the end of the Cretaceous, all types of giant prehistoric reptiles disappear in a mass extinction, perhaps victims of a catastrophic asteroid strike, but birds survive. 140 17 Therizinosaurus Tyrannosaurus Diplodocus Sauropelta Confuciusornis Argentinosaurus Quetzalcoatlus Pteranodon Velociraptor Triceratops Struthiomimus Iguanodon Allosaurus Albertonectes Mosasaurus US_016-017_Dinosaurs.indd 17 04/06/2018 15:13 End of the dinosaurs Almost 66 million years ago, a catastrophic event occurred that wiped out more than half of life on Earth, including the dinosaurs. Most experts believe this mass extinction was caused by an enormous meteorite crashing into Earth. Such a huge impact would have created a worldwide cloud of dust and fumes, choking animals and blocking out the Sun’s light and warmth. The planet’s climate would have changed dramatically, making life impossible for many species. US_018-019_Extinction_of_dinosaurs_DPS.indd 18 17/07/2018 16:38 US_018-019_Extinction_of_dinosaurs_DPS.indd 19 04/06/2018 15:13 20 Human ancestors Humans originated as African apes and are related to chimps and gorillas. Around 6 mill ion years ago, our closest ape ancestors, called hominins, began to walk on two legs. Over time, they developed bigger brains and learned to make tools and control fire. As hominins evolved, they left Africa to settle all over the world. 7–6 mya (million years ago) Upright walking In the African forests, apes evolve the ability to walk upright. This frees their hands for carrying and throwing. The first known ape which may have been bipedal (two-legged) is called Sahelanthropus tchadensis. Australopithecines Several species of bipedal ape, Australopithecines, spread across the grasslands of East Africa. The most famous Australopithecus is Lucy, a female whose 3.2 million-year-old bones were discovered in Ethiopia in 1974. 4 mya Hand axe Homo erectus moves out of Africa and into Asia. It invents a new kind of stone tool —a hand axe with a leaf-shaped cutting blade. This is the first tool made to a design. 1.8–1.75 mya Making fire Homo erectus uses fire, allowing the species to cook, keep warm, and protect itself from wild animals. The earliest evidence of fire is a 1 million-year-old collection of charred animal bones found in a cave in South Africa. 1 mya Homo heidelbergensis Homo heidelbergensis appears in Africa, later moving into West Asia and Europe. It is the first hominin species to build shelters and use spears to hunt animals. 700,000 ya (years ago) Last Neanderthals Neanderthals die out, perhaps unable to adapt to the rapidly changing climate. Our own species (Homo sapiens sapiens) is now the last type of human on the planet. However, today, most of us carry some Neanderthal genes. 39,000 ya First art Humans in Europe and Asia produce the first works of art: paintings and carvings of animals and people. The paintings, created in caves, probably serve a ritual purpose, such as contacting animal spirits to bring about a successful hunt. 35,000 ya Warming climate The climate warms, causing sea levels to rise. Big game animals, such as mammoths, die out. Humans adapt by eating new plant foods and catching more fish. The bow and arrow, a new invention, allows them to hunt small game such as deer. 14,000–12,000 ya US_020_021_Early_Humans.indd 20 06/06/2018 17:18 21 4 mya Homo habilis Following the first use of stone tools by Australopithecines 3.3 million years ago, Homo habilis (“handy man”) spreads across East and southern Africa. It makes simple chopping tools by smashing river pebbles. Homo erectus Homo erectus (“upright man”), the first hominin with the body size of modern humans, evolves in Africa. Like an ape, Homo erectus has a low, flat forehead and a projecting jaw with big teeth. 1.8–1.75 mya Neanderthals Our closest hominin relatives, the Neanderthals, appear in Asia and Europe. They are the first hominins to bury their dead —they do so in caves with offerings. 400,000 ya Homo sapiens sapiens Modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) appear in Africa. Modern humans and Neanderthals have similarly large brains. Both learn to make clothes from animal skins, allowing them to move to cooler regions. 200,000 ya Homo floresiensis Homo floresiensis, a tiny hominin just 3 ft 6 in (1 m) tall, lives on the island of Flores in Indonesia. It is thought to have died out around 50,000 years ago. 100,000 ya Cro-Magnons Modern humans called Cro-Magnons move into Europe, where they live alongside Neanderthals. They are the first humans to sew, using bone needles, and make jewelry from shells and bones. 45,000 ya39,000 ya 2.5 mya Human migrations Modern humans left Africa 120,000 years ago, beginning a journey that would take them to every inhabitable place on Earth. Sea levels were much lower than they are now. A bridge of land linked Asia and America, and the distance by sea to Australia was far shorter than it is today. 1.9 mya AFRICA AUSTRALIA NO RT H A ME RI CA S O U T H A M E R IC A EUROPE ANTARCTICA ASIA US_020_021_Early_Humans.indd 21 06/06/2018 17:18 22 Agriculture The history of agriculture is essentially the history of producing food as opposed to finding it. It includes farming, rearing animals for food, and learning how to improve techniques. Before agriculture took off, people relied on hunting and gathering—activities that involve a lot of chance. By contrast, farmers can influence food production by sowing seeds and raising animals. FieldworkCrops are grown in open fields in western Europe. Farmers rotate crops between three plots: one for human food, one for livestock feeding, and one left fallow to recover nutrients that farming takes from the soil. First farmers After the last Ice Age ends, farming develops in Syria and Iran. By about 9000 bce, farmers are growing wheat and barley in the Fertile Crescent (western Asia, the Nile Delta, and the Nile Valley). Sheep and goats Sheep and goats are raised for milk and food. Their caretakers move around with these flocks, looking for grass for the animals to nibble. People will begin weaving sheep wool into fabric around 4000 bce. A farmer’s best friendDogs become farmer’s friends—from cheery companions to fearsome guardians. There is evidence to suggest that the first dogs are tamed wolves. Rice bowlRice, which may have originated in India, is farmed throughout much of Asia. It grows in paddies, or fields submerged in water. Eventually, half of the world’s population will eat rice as a staple food. c.1000 ce c.11,000–9000 bce c.7000 bce c.10,000 bce c.5000 bce “Agriculture not only gives riches to a nation, but the only riches she can call her own.” Samuel Johnson, English authorCows and pigs Cows and pigs are tamed. They provide a variety of materials aside from their meat and milk. When slaughtered, leather is made from their skins Their droppings enrich the soil. Pigs eat scraps to recycle them. c.8500 bce IrrigationIn Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), farmers build levees to hold back floods from their fields and channel floodwater into the crops they grow. Managing water in this way is called irrigation. c.5500 bce Iron plowBreaking soil up in preparation for sowing seeds is a tough job. Ancient people use sharp objects attached to sticks until the Han Dynasty Chinese people invent a durable iron plow that is easy to use. c.200 bce 1400s– 1500s Cotton gin US-born inventor Eli Whitney invents a machine that makes removing seeds from cotton much easier and faster. By the middle of the 19th century, the material will become America’s biggest export. US_022-023_Agriculture.indd 22 06/06/2018 14:27 23 Scythe The scythe is an agricultural tool used to mow grass and reap crops. It is swung along the ground, and the sharp blade slices the grass or crop at the base. The first scythes may have been developed around 500 bce. Crop swap As Europeans explore more of the world, crops are exchanged across the globe. Coffee, tea, sugar, and citrus fruits come from Asia; wheat, barley, and rye come from Europe; while tomatoes, corn, beans, potatoes, and chile peppers move from the Americas. Animals are exchanged, too. 1400s– 1500s Reaping rewards Harvesting is slow and back- breaking work, done by hand with a scythe. Cyrus McCormick patents the reaper, a machine that aids in crop harvesting. His reaper cuts, threshes, and bundles grain as horses pull it along. 1831 Selective breeding Czech friar and scientist Gregor Mendel conducts experiments with flowers and pea plants. Mendel describes how certain traits, such as color or size, are passed on through the generations. This knowledge is used by farmers to selectively breed crops. 1866 Tractor Steam-powered threshers that separate grain from cereal crops are expensive and hard to move. American inventor John Froelich invents a rudimentary tractor that can pull the thresher with ease. 1890s GM crops Genetically modified (GM) crops become common. They can increase yield, boost nutrition, and resist pests, but potential food safety risks from “tampering” with the natural ecosystem are a worry for many. 1990s Cotton gin US-born inventor Eli Whitney invents a machine that makes removing seeds from cotton much easier and faster. By the middle of the 19th century, the material will become America’s biggest export. 1794 Steel plow Blacksmith John Deere invents a steel plow to keep the sticky soil of the American prairie from clogging up cast-iron plows. His invention is wildly successful. 1837 Combine harvester Australian Hugh Victor McKay produces the first commercially successful combine harvester, a machine that cuts, threshes, and cleans crops with one pass of its mighty rotating blades. 1885 Green Revolution Farmers in Mexico lead a movement to update farming practices and produce more nourishing food. The technologies spread across the globe. 1940s US_022-023_Agriculture.indd 23 06/06/2018 14:27 24 P ou ri ng b ro nz e B ro nz e is a s of t m et al th at is re la tiv el y ea sy to m el t a nd p ou r i nt o a m ol d . G ol d , si lv er , c op p er , t in , a nd le ad a re a ls o so ft m et al s. Ir on is h ar d er a nd m el ts a t a m uc h hi gh er te m p er at ur e. W or ki ng w ith m et al s T he u se o f m et al s w as o ne o f t he g re at es t t ec hn o lo g ic al le ap s in hi st o ry . U nl ik e st o ne to o ls , m et al o ne s ca n b e m o ld ed o r b ea te n in to a ny s ha p e, a nd m et al b la d es a re e as y to re sh ar p en . T he fi rs t m et al to o ls w er e m ad e m o st ly w ith c o p p er , a s of t m et al th at w as e as y to fi nd . L at er , p eo p le d is co ve re d h ow to w o rk ir o n— a m uc h ha rd er m et al th at h ad to b e ex tr ac te d fr o m ro ck in a fu rn ac e. T he C op p er -S to ne A ge T he p eo p le o f w es te rn A si a d is co ve r ho w to e xt ra ct c op p er fr om c op p er -r ic h ro ck s by h ea tin g th em in a fi re (t hi s is ca lle d s m el tin g) . T he y p ou r t he m ol te n co p p er in to m ol d s to m ak e to ol s. M os t p eo p le s til l u se s to ne to ol s, s o th is p er io d is c al le d th e C op p er -S to ne A ge . T he B ro nz e A ge In w es te rn A si a an d C en tr al E ur op e, th e us e of b ro nz e b ec om es w id es p re ad . B ro nz e is m ad e by m el tin g co p p er w ith a s m al l a m ou nt of ti n. T hi s re su lts in a m uc h ha rd er m et al . A tr ad e in ti n, w hi ch is a ra re m et al , a ls o d ev el op s. M et al w or ki ng b eg in s M et al w or ki ng b eg in s in w es te rn A si a, w he re th e w or ld ’s fi rs t f ar m er s liv e. E ar ly fa rm er s fin d n at ur al ly o cc ur rin g co p p er n ug ge ts a nd h am m er th em in to b ea d s. S oo n af te r, th ey m ak e ob je ct s fr om g ol d , s ilv er , a nd le ad . O ld es t g ol d tr ea su re In V ar na , i n w ha t i s no w B ul ga ria , p eo p le a re b ur ie d w ith th ou sa nd s of ite m s of g ol d je w el ry . T he o ld es t go ld tr ea su re in th e w or ld , i t w ill li e hi d d en u nd er gr o un d fo r o ve r 6 ,0 0 0 ye ar s b ef or e b ei ng d is co ve re d b y ac ci d en t i n 19 72 . Ir on Iro n is fi rs t m ad e by th e H itt ite s o f w es te rn A si a, w ho u se it to m ak e w ea p o ns . A lth ou gh ir on is th e m os t c om m on m et al , i t r eq ui re s gr ea t h ea t t o e xt ra ct fr o m ro ck . In st ea d o f b ei ng p ou re d in to m o ld s, it is s of te ne d a nd b ea te n in to s ha p e. M al ac hi te is a c op pe r- ric h m in er al fo un d in ro ck s. c.9000 bce c.4500 bce c.4500 bce c.3100 bce c.2200 bce US_024-025_Metalworking.indd 24 04/06/2018 15:13 25 Ir on Iro n is fi rs t m ad e by th e H itt ite s o f w es te rn A si a, w ho u se it to m ak e w ea p o ns . A lth ou gh ir on is th e m os t c om m on m et al , i t r eq ui re s gr ea t h ea t t o e xt ra ct fr o m ro ck . In st ea d o f b ei ng p ou re d in to m o ld s, it is s of te ne d a nd b ea te n in to s ha p e. E ur op ea n b la st fu rn ac es T he fi rs t E ur op ea n b la st fu rn ac es b eg in o p er at in g in G er m an y, S w itz er la nd , a nd S w ed en . T he y us e w at er w he el s to p ow er b el lo w s th at b lo w a ir in to th e fu rn ac e, a nd b ec au se o f th is , a re b ui lt by ri ve rs . In d ia n st ee l In d ia n m et al w or ke rs m ak e th e hi gh es t q ua lit y st ee l i n th e an ci en t w or ld . I t i s la te r e xp or te d to C hi na a nd th e W es t, w he re it is c al le d “w oo tz .” It is u se d to m ak e ex ce pt io na lly sh ar p, h ar d -w ea rin g sw or d s. T he Ir on A ge T he u se o f i ro n sp re ad s fr om W es te rn A si a to E ur op e, a nd In d ia ’s Ir on A ge ta ke s of f a t a ro un d th e sa m e tim e. Ir o n’ s ha rd ne ss m ak es it id ea l f or to ol s, c oo ki ng p ot s, a nd na ils , a s w el l a s w ea p on s. A fr ic an ir on T he Ir o n A ge re ac he s su b - S ah ar an A fr ic a, w he re th e N ok p eo p le o f N ig er ia u se ir on to m ak e sp ea rh ea d s, k ni ve s, an d b ra ce le ts . T he u se o f i ro n to ol s he lp s fa rm in g sp re ad ac ro ss A fr ic a. C as t i ro n In C hi na , p eo p le d is co ve r ho w to m ak e iro n in a b la st fu rn ac e— a fu rn ac e p ow er ed b y a b la st o f h ot a ir. T he re su lti ng iro n ca n b e re m el te d a nd p ou re d in to m ol d s to m ak e ca st ir on . B la st fu rn ac es w ill n ot b e in ve nt ed in th e W es t f or a lm os t 2 ,0 0 0 y ea rs . P er u an d B ol iv ia In P er u an d B ol iv ia , p eo p le b eg in la rg e- sc al e sm el tin g of co p p er . T he y us e go ld , s ilv er , an d tu m ba ga (g ol d m ix ed w ith c op p er o r s ilv er ) t o m ak e b ea ut ifu l w or ks o f a rt in v ar io us c ol or s. C hi ne se s ta tu es T he S an xi ng d ui p eo p le o f C hi na m ak e la rg e b ro nz e st at ue s w ith m as kl ik e fa ce s. T he ir b ro nz e in cl ud es le ad , a s w el l a s tin a nd c op p er , m ak in g a st ro ng er , h ea vi er m et al . T he b ig ge st st at ue , o f a tr ee , s ta nd s al m os t 1 3 ft (4 m ) h ig h. Ir on -A ge E ur op e Iro n w or ki ng s p re ad s th ro ug ho ut E ur op e, w he re re ad ily a va ila b le iro n w ea p on s le ad to a n in cr ea se in w ar fa re . T hi s 6 th -c en tu ry - b c e G re ek va se s ho w s b la ck sm ith s us in g a fo rg e (a p ow er fu l f ire ) t o so ft en ir on b ef or e sh ap in g it w ith a h am m er . c.1200 bce 1200–1101 bce 800–300 bce c.700 bce c.600 bce 6th century bce 5th century bce 13th century ce US_024-025_Metalworking.indd 25 04/06/2018 15:13 Prehistoric communities Early farmers establish villages with basic buildings and shared structures. The first of these are found in Mesopotamia in West Asia. Gradually, they expand to become small towns with organized communities. Walled settlements Communities begin to surround their settlements with protective walls. In the town of Jericho in Palestine, a huge stone wall is constructed for defense, surveillance, and flood protection, keeping the 3,000 inhabitants safe. Towns and cities The first settlements started in prehistoric times. Basic buildings provided shelter and safety as these communities grew into towns and villages. With more opportunities for trade and work, the populations of many increased, eventually resulting in the growth of major cities. The birth of new technologies enabled many of these towns and cities to develop even faster into the modern metropolises we know today. 500–700 ce Replacement walls King Philip II of France orders a new wall to be built around Paris, stretching beyond the outskirts of the city. It is 8 ft (2 m) wide with around 70 towers. Many other medieval European cities also rebuild their original walls to contain their growing centers. Byzantine bazaars In the Byzantine Empire, around the Mediterranean, public areas and main roads in cities start to become closed off by shops. These eventually evolve into bazaars —covered markets where locals barter to get the best price for goods. Factory towns During the Industrial Revolution, people move to work in factories. New towns grow rapidly around the factories to house workers. 1807 Street lights The first public street lighting that uses gas is demonstrated in London. This becomes the norm across towns and cities, solving the problem of limited light at night. 8000 bce 9000–4000 bce 119 0 1750–1800 US_026-027_Towns_Cities.indd 26 04/06/2018 15:13 27 Early cities The first great cities develop in Mesopotamia. These are each ruled by a king. Grand stone structures called ziggurats are built, containing shrines, staircases, and towers. 4000–3000 bce Trading hubs Mesopotamia’s cities become important trading centers, using rivers to transport goods. Long-distance trade takes place between cities in Mesopotamia and in the Indus Valley in Pakistan. Luxury items such as spices, textiles, metals, and precious stones are exchanged. 2900–2300 bce Sewer systems The first sewer systems are constructed by the Indus Valley civilization. Underground tunnels carry water from place to place, allowing most homes to have a bath, toilet, and water supply. 2600 bce City-states In ancient Greece, cities establish themselves as independent states with their own political systems. Athens, Sparta, and Thebes are some of the most important city-states. 1 ce Record-breaking Rome Rome becomes the first city to reach a population of 1 million people. Most Romans live in blocks of flats called insulae that are 6 or 7 stories high, maximizing space in the city. 1807 1863 1885 Skyscrapers The first high-rise building, nicknamed a “skyscraper,” is built in Chicago, IL. Building upward saves space in the packed city center and is possible due to the invention of the elevator and sturdy steel. 2008 City slickers Half of the world’s population now lives in cities. Megacities, which have populations of more than 10 million, have become more common. Tokyo, Japan, is the biggest city in the world, with around 13 million people living there. “What is the city but the people?” William Shakespeare, Coriolanus, c. 1608 ce 800 bce Underground railway The world’s first underground railway system opens in London. Moving transportation underground saves space and provides a quicker way to get around the bustling city. US_026-027_Towns_Cities.indd 27 04/06/2018 15:13 28 Inventing the wheel Wheels can be seen in so many objects around us that it is tricky to imagine a time when they didn’t exist. Nobody knows exactly how the wheel evolved to form the wheel we see today, but archaeologists think it all began thousands of years ago with simple log rollers and sleds. The story of the wheel Early humans realized that heavy objects could be moved more easily if they were rolled instead of dragged. It took thousands of years to develop the wheel. Many inventions developed over the past 3,500 years would not have been possible without it. G ea rs G ea rs a re to ot he d w he el s th at w or k to ge th er to in cr ea se th e sp ee d an d fo rc e of a m ac hi ne . T he e ar lie st ex am pl es a pp ea r i n th e 4t h ce nt ur y b c e i n C hi na an d w ill e ve nt ua lly b e fo un d in m ac hi ne s su ch as c ha rio ts , c lo ck s, c ar s, an d bi cy cl es . S p ok ed w he el T he a nc ie nt E gy pt ia ns re al iz e th at w he el s ca n be m ad e lig ht er b y cu tt in g ch un ks fr om th em . T he se sp ok ed w he el s al lo w th e E gy pt ia ns to o ut ru n th ei r en em ie s in b at tle a nd tr ad e go od s m or e qu ic kl y. W he el s fo r tr an sp o rt at io n T he e ar lie st w he el s us ed fo r t ra ns p o rt at io n ar e se en o n M es op ot am ia n ch ar io ts a nd c ar ts . T he y ar e b ui lt fr om s ol id w oo d an d a llo w p eo p le to tr av el m or e ea si ly th an ev er b ef or e. Wa ter whe el The grin ding of c orn is tran sfor me d by the inv ent ion of t he w ate r wh eel. Th is ma chin e us es t he w ate r of a fast -flo win g st rea m, r ath er tha n pe ople , to pow er a mil l. The win dm ill w on’t be inve nte d fo r an oth er 700 yea rs, i n 60 0 ce . Ar ch im ed es ’ sc re w Ar ch im ed es , a n a nc ien t Gr ee k i nv en tor , d ev elo ps a rot ati ng co rks cre w tha t tra ns for ms irr iga tio n b y all ow ing w ate r to be tra ns fer red fro m low gr ou nd to hi gh gr ou nd . “The greatest inventors are unknown to us. Someone invented the wheel—but who?” Isaac Asimov, science-fiction writer, 1988 T he fi rs t w he el T he fi rs t w he el s ar e p ot te rs ’ w he el s. T he y b eg in to a p p ea r in d iff er en t c ul tu re s ac ro ss th e gl ob e in a ro un d 3 50 0 b c e . M ad e of h ar d en ed c la y, th e w he el a llo w s p eo p le to c re at e b et te r b ow ls a nd ja rs . c. 3 5 0 0 b c e c . 3 5 0 0 b c e c. 2 0 0 0 b c e b c e Rolling along The ancient Sumerians realized that they could move bulky objects more easily if they rolled them over round log rollers. Simple sled Rollers proved awkward to move around, so the Sumerians developed a sled with a curved front that could be pulled along more easily. Teaming up The Sumerians decided to combine the sled and roller, finding that the sled glided over the rollers more smoothly than over the ground. Making grooves Over time, the movement of the sled over the roller wore grooves in the log roller, which helped keep the sled in place. Early wheels To improve the design, the Sumerians chipped away at the log to create two wheels and an axle. Pegs fixed on the sled hooked it onto the axle. The first cart The Sumerians later fixed individual wheels onto an axle and attached the sled to it securely by drilling holes in its frame. c.1 00 bce 100 bcec.500 ce bc e 3r d ce nt ur y 4 th c en tu ry US_028-029_Wheel.indd 28 06/06/2018 14:27 29 Mechanical clock The invention of a mechanism that can control a gear’s rotation leads to the development of the mechanical clock, where it is used to make the hands of the clock tick at regular intervals. AstrolabeThis astronomical calculator uses wheels to find the position of objects that can be seen in the night sky, helping navigators and astronomers identify stars and planets and use them to find their way. FlywheelOne of the most significant technological developments of the wheel, the flywheel is used in cars and spacecraft to store energy. This heavy wheel spins so it can increase a machine’s momentum and store rotational energy. Propeller Leonardo da Vinci designs a helicopter that cleverly adapts the principles of the Archim edes screw to create an upward force called lift. Da Vinci’s idea is developed into a propeller with blades that are now used to drive ships and planes forward. The Industrial Revolution W ith the creation of m any new technologies during the Industrial Revolution, the w heel becom es crucial to the developm ent of m echanism s and inventions such as pow er loom s, spinning m achines, and steam engines. Tanks The earliest tanks are built for W orld W ar I as arm ored, m obile w eapons. The tank uses a continuous band of treads w rapped around tw o or m ore w heels on each side. This spreads its w eight over a larger area, w hich helps it m ove over soft, uneven ground. P neum atic tires U ntil p neum atic tires w ere invented , travelers had to p ut up w ith uncom fortab ly b um py journeys on vehicles w ith w ood en or hard ened rub b er w heels. P neum atic tires are filled w ith air, m aking for a m uch m ore com fortab le rid e. E lectric m otor T he first usable electric m otor, created by M oritz Jacobi, converts electrical energy into m echanical energy. It paves the w ay for the m otors w e use in m any m achines today. c.1 00 bce 100 bcec.500 ce 100 bce c.1100 100 bce c.1300 100 bce 1493 100 bc e 1760 10 0 b c e 1834 10 0 b c e 18 8 8 10 0 b c e 1915 The Penny Farthing The enormous front wheel enabled high speeds, but the Penny Farthing was dangerous. It lost popularity in the 1880s with the introduction of “safety bicycles.” bc e 3r d ce nt ur y US_028-029_Wheel.indd 29 17/07/2018 16:38 30 Runes In Scandinavia and modern-day Germany, people begin to use runes, with 24 signs. The system is inspired by contact with the Roman alphabet, but uses straight lines, so it can be easily carved onto wood or stone. The written word Spoken language has existed since prehistoric times. The need to keep records of trade led civil izations around the world to invent ways of writing language down. This allowed knowledge to be collected and passed on from person to person both reliably and over great distances. It’s thanks to the written word that we know the thoughts and ideas of people who lived thousands of years ago. Greek alphabet The Greeks adapt the Phoenician alphabet, adding letters for vowels. It has 24 letters, and is usually written from left to right. Roman alphabet In Italy, the Romans adapt the Greek alphabet to write their own language, Latin. The Roman alphabet goes on to become the world’s most widely used script. Mayan writing In Central America, the Mayan people develop a writing system with signs standing for syllables as well as ideas. They carve monumental inscriptions, paint text on vases, and write on fig tree bark. Arabic script Arabs create an alphabet with 28 letters, written from right to left. With the spread of Islam, the Arabic script is later adopted across North Africa and much of Asia. Brahmi script This script is developed in India, using signs for consonants with additional markings for vowels. Brahmi is the ancestor of around 200 later Asian scripts. World’s first writing The Egyptians invent hieroglyphs, a system of around 700–800 picture signs, which stand for words, sounds, and ideas. c.3300 bce c.650 bce c.300 bce c.150 bce 3rd century ce c.800 bce c.800 bce US_030-031_The_written_word.indd 30 04/06/2018 15:13 31 Cuneiform The Sumerians of Mesopotamia (see pages 36–37) invent cuneiform, a writing system of shapes pressed into clay with a reed stylus. Indus script The Indus people of India invent a script that remains undeciphered to this day. Evidence suggests it was written from right to left. Chinese writing The earliest surviving Chinese writing uses picture signs called “ideograms.” Each picture stands for an idea or an object. The signs later develop into the script used in China today. First alphabet To the east of Egypt, the first alphabet, Proto-Sinaitic (or Canaanite), is created. Based on Egyptian hieroglyphs, people only need to learn 30 signs to be able to write. Phoenician alphabet Phoenicians (from the eastern Mediterranean coast) simplify the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. They use 22 signs, all standing for consonants. The script later inspires the Hebrew, Arabic, and Greek writing systems. Japanese scripts Japanese people adapt Chinese writing to create a script called kanji. They also invent two other scripts, hiragana and katakana, with signs standing for syllables. As a result, Japan has three writing systems. Slavic scripts Bulgarian churchmen adapt the Greek alphabet to create the Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets, which they use to translate the Bible into Slavic languages from Central and Eastern Europe. Cyrillic later evolves into the modern Russian alphabet. The Rosetta Stone The Rosetta Stone is an inscribed basalt block, discovered by French soldiers in Egypt in 1799. Carved in 196 bce, the same text is written on it in Ancient Greek, hieroglyphs, and demotic (an everyday Egyptian script). In 1822, French linguist Jean-François Champollion used the inscriptions on the stone to work out how to read hieroglyphs, which until then had been impossible to decipher. 5th century c.860–880 c.1200 bce c.1850–1650 bce c.3200 bce c.2600 bce c.2500 bce US_030-031_The_written_word.indd 31 05/09/2018 17:30 THE ANCIENT WORLD 3000 BCE–500 CE US_032-033_Ancient_world_opener.indd 32 04/06/2018 15:13 US_032-033_Ancient_world_opener.indd 33 04/06/2018 15:13 34 The Ancient World The earliest civil izations established their cultures around huge rivers that could support farming, such as the Tigris and Euphrates in West Asia, and the Nile in Egypt. As technology developed and trade expanded after 3000 bce, great empires also sprang up across Europe and East Asia. As these new societies took shape, many of them came into conflict with one another in competition for land and resources. c.2500 bce The first recorded war takes place, between the cities of Umma and Lagash in Mesopotamia. c.950–612 bce The Assyrians of Mesopotamia create an empire stretching from Egypt across West Asia. 550 bce Cyrus the Great founds the First Persian Empire, based in West Asia. 490–479 bce The Persians make two unsuccessful attempts to conquer the cities of Greece. 336–323 bce Alexander of Macedon unites Greece and conquers the Persian Empire. Greek cities are founded as far east as India. c.509 bce The people of Rome in Italy overthrow their king, and begin to expand the city’s influence. 321–185 bce Chandragupta Maurya of South India invades the north and establishes the Maurya Empire. c.1900 bce The Amorites conquer most of Mesopotamia, which they rule from the city of Babylon. 2589–2566 bce The Egyptians construct the Great Pyramid at Giza. 508 bce The Athenians of Greece establish the first democracy. c.450–50 bce The Celtic La Tène culture develops in modern-day Switzerland. Mesopotamia The earliest cities were built in West Asia, in a historical region known as Mesopotamia (see pages 36–37). The cultures of this area invented farming and the wheel. Land of the Pharaohs Ruled by kings known as pharaohs, the ancient Egyptians (see pages 40–41) built large monuments called pyramids to house their royal dead. Ancient Greece In Athens, one of the warring city-states of ancient Greece (see pages 52–53), great thinkers developed early philosophy and democracy. The Celts Spread across Central and Western Europe, the Celts (see pages 58–59) were warriors who shared a single culture. They were experts at crafting metal. US_034-035_Ancient_world_intro.indd 34 15/06/2018 15:09 35 221 bce The king of Qin unites the kingdoms of China under his rule, becoming Shi Huangdi (“First Emperor”). 27 bce After a civil war, Octavian becomes Rome’s first emperor, taking a new name, Augustus. c.320 ce Chandra Gupta I conquers the Ganges Valley in northern India, founding the Gupta Empire. 202 bce–220 ce The emperors of the Han Dynasty rule China for more than 400 years. 476 ce Rome falls to Germanic invaders, but its empire survives in the east as the Byzantine Empire. 30 bce Egypt is conquered by the Romans, bringing an end to the rule of the pharaohs. 79 ce Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupts, destroying the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The Persian Empire Centered in West Asia, the Persian Empire (see pages 60–61) was split into provinces, each one ruled by a regional governor known as a satrap. Imperial China Emperor Qin Shi Huang created the first of a series of imperial dynasties that would go on to rule China (see pages 68–69) for the next 2,000 years. Rome Beginning as a small hilltop town in Italy, Rome (see pages 72–73) became the capital of an empire that spanned much of Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. Ancient India Greatly influenced by the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism, a series of empires sprang up across the Indian subcontinent (see pages 82–83). Pottery The process of creating pottery was first discovered in prehistoric times, but in the ancient world, many cultures— particularly the Greeks—perfected pottery design as an art form. Objects such as this Greek amphora ( jug) give historians many visual clues about the fashions, stories, and societies of the ancient world. US_034-035_Ancient_world_intro.indd 35 15/06/2018 15:09 36 Mesopotamia Mesopotamia means “the land between the two rivers,” referring to the Tigris and the Euphrates in western Asia. It was here, more than 5,000 years ago, that the world’s first cities were built. The Mesopotamians invented organized religion, royalty, armies, law, and many other fundamental features of civilization as we know it. Early beginnings Farming people in northern Mesopotamia develop systems to supply their fields with water. Fine Mesopotamian painted pottery is exported across southwest Asia. Akkadians King Sargon of Akkad (a region in northern Mesopotamia) conquers all of Sumer, creating the world’s first empire. The Akkadian language gradually replaces Sumerian in Mesopotamia. Ziggurat The first ziggurats (stepped temples) are built in Ur, Eridu, Nippur, and Uruk. These huge stone structures were built as places of religious worship. Babylonians The Amorites, a people from the western deserts, conquer most of Mesopotamia, which they rule from Babylon. They are known as the Babylonians, and their new empire is called Babylonia. Hammurabi’s law code King Hammurabi reigns over Babylon. He is famous for his law code, which, although based on earlier codes, he claims to have received in person from Shamash, the god of justice. Hittites and Kassites The Hittites and Kassites invade Babylonia using iron weapons and fast chariots pulled by horses. The Kassites conquer Babylonia, which they rule for 500 years. Assyrians The Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia create an empire stretching from Egypt to western Persia. They speak Aramaic, which becomes the standard language used across southwest Asia. c.6000–4000 bce c.2350 bcec.2100 bcec.1900 bce 1792–1750 bce c.1595–1530 bce c.950–612 bce US_036-037_Mesopotamia.indd 36 04/06/2018 15:13 37 Sumer Northern Mesopotamians move into the flat southern plains, later called Sumer. They establish large villages, build the first temples, and invent the potter’s wheel. First city Villages at Uruk join together to form the world’s first city. It has walls, monumental architecture, and a society split into specialized classes, including priests, merchants and craftworkers. Kings and writing Around a dozen city-states emerge. Each is ruled by an ensi (king), who lives in a palace and claims to govern on behalf of the local god. Cuneiform writing (see page 31) is invented. Bronze Sumerians learn how to make bronze by mixing copper and tin. At first they use it to make tools and weapons, eventually creating sculptures with it. Royals tombs of Ur Kings and queens of Ur are buried in tombs with treasures made of gold, silver, lapis lazuli, and carnelian. The tombs also contain the bodies of servants who have been sacrificed. Fall of Assyria There are widespread rebellions against Assyrian rule, led by the Babylonians and the Medes. The Assyrian cities are burned, and Babylonia takes control of the Assyrian Empire. Cyrus the Great King Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers the Babylonian Empire. He claims to rule on behalf of Marduk, the chief god of the city of Babylon. Warfare The first recorded war in history takes place, between the cities of Lagash and Umma. A carving shows King Eannatum of Lagash leading his army to victory, marching over fallen enemies. c.5000 bce c.4500 bce c.3300–3100 bce c.3000 bcec.2750–2400 bce 614–612 bce 539 bce c.2500 bce The Standard of Ur This box was found in a royal tomb in the city of Ur. It was made around 2500 bce and its mosaic decoration shows what life was like in early Mesopotamia. This side depicts warfare, while the other side shows life during peacetime. US_036-037_Mesopotamia.indd 37 17/07/2018 16:38 38 Fun and games People have been sitting down to play games together for many thousands of years. Board games were popular in ancient Egypt, while card games were created in imperial China. Today, old favorites are enjoyed alongside new fantastical storytelling adventures. Games provide hours of entertainment and competition at every roll of the dice or choice of a card. Senet Board games are popular in ancient Egypt, with some royalty deciding to be buried with their games. A favorite game is senet, which is played on a board marked with 30 squares. c.3500 bce The royal game of Ur This game is played on a board of 20 squares with four- sided dice and two sets of seven pieces. The aim is for a player to get their pieces from one end of the board to the other. c.2600 bce Tic-tac-toe People all across the Roman Empire play a version of tic-tac- toe (also known today as noughts and crosses). The Roman version is called terni lapilli (meaning “three pebbles at a time”). 1st century bce 4th century ce Chess This skill and strategy game is first played in either Northern India or Central Asia. As trade routes from India and Persia in West Asia expand, chess will reach Europe by 1000 ce. c.600Dice People have been rolling objects as part of games for thousands of years, but the oldest known dice come from Shahr-e Sūkhté, a Bronze Age city in modern-day Iran. Dice soon become common. c.2800 bce Go Invented in China, go is played on a grid board, with players taking turns to place white and black stones at the grid intersections. It is one of the oldest board games that is still played today. c.500 bce Pachisi The Indian game of pachisi is played on a cross-shaped board. Six or seven cowrie shells are thrown to decide how many places a player moves their pieces. Emperor Akbar (1542–1605) has a gigantic board built, on which humans are moved around as game pieces. US_038-039_Games.indd 38 06/06/2018 14:27 39 9th century Snakes and ladders Originally called mokshapat, this board game is invented by an Indian saint named Gyandev. It is meant to help children understand the difference between good and evil, with the ladders representing good and the snakes representing evil. c.13th century Monopoly American Elizabeth Magie invents “The Landlord’s Game” to warn children against pitfalls of capitalism. Magie’s original board uses made-up street names, but later versions of the game (now called Monopoly) each use real place names from a city around the world. 1904 R ol e p la y Fa nt as tic al ro le -p la yi ng ga m es b ec om e p op ul ar w ith th e re le as e of D un ge on s an d D ra go ns . W ith it s no nh um an ch ar ac te rs a nd m ag ic al na rr at iv e, th e ga m e so on sp re ad s ar ou nd th e w or ld . 19 74 M od er n b oa rd g am es Fa m ili es a nd g ro up s of fr ie nd s re d is co ve r t ab le to p g am es a s a fu n gr ou p a ct iv ity . T he re is a hu ge ri se in p eo p le p la yi ng ga m es a nd a s ur ge in th e p ro d uc tio n of n ew g am es . T he re a re n ow m an y th ou sa nd s of ti tle s on th e m ar ke t t o ch oo se fr om . 2 1s t c en tu ry Playing cards The Chinese invent the earliest playing cards. When cards reach Europe, the suit markings are cups, gold coins, swords, and polo sticks. In about 1480, the French suits familiar today (hearts, diamonds, spades, and clubs) become standard. Mahjong This tile-laying game is first developed in China and becomes popular across Asia. The game of skill and strategy is usually played with a set of 144 tiles featuring Chinese symbols. Scrabble An American architect named Alfred Butts invents the word game Scrabble to mix spelling skills with a scoring system. During the 1950s, it becomes such a big hit that stores ration supplies per customer. 1870 1933 Clue This classic crime mystery board game is invented by British musician Anthony E. Pratt. Players are suspects who must follow clues to decide which of them is the murderer, where the crime was committed, and what weapon was used. 1944 Dominoes In the 12th century, the Chinese created two-sided tiles with dots to represent numbers on each side. They were given the name “dominoes” in Italy and can be used to play a variety of games. US_038-039_Games.indd 39 06/06/2018 14:27 2055–1710 bce Middle Kingdom Egypt is reunited by Pharaoh Mentuhotep II, the founder of what historians would later call the Middle Kingdom. This period is remembered for its great achievements in art and literature, which leave behind clues about the daily lives of ancient Egyptians. Mentuhotep II 2181–2055 bce Dark period The fall of the Old Kingdom after a period of political strife and widespread drought is followed by a time of disunity, called the First Intermediate Period. There are few monumental building projects during this time, as the power of royal authority was in decline. 2589–2566 bce Great Pyramid At Giza, Pharaoh Khufu builds the Great Pyramid, which remains to this day the world’s biggest stone building. The whole nation takes part in the project, either hauling stone or growing food for the workforce. 1650 bce The Hyksos A people from western Asia, the Hyksos, move into northern Egypt and destroy the Middle Kingdom. They bring with them the new technology of fighting from horse- drawn chariots. While the Hyksos rule the north, Egyptian pharaohs continue to govern in the south. 1279-1213 bce Ramesses the Great Ramesses II rules for an astonishing 66 years and fathers around 100 children. He has many colossal statues built of himself, as well as a temple at Abu Simbel, where he is worshipped as a god. 664–332 bce Foreign rulers During the Late Period, Egypt is conquered by a series of foreign powers. The first invaders are the Nubians, followed by the Assyrians and the Persians. Finally, in 332 bce, King Alexander the Great of Macedon, ruler of an empire that extends from Greece, takes control. 332–30 bce Ptolemaic Dynasty Egypt is ruled by 15 Macedonian pharaohs, all called Ptolemy. The capital of Egypt during this period is Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great on the Mediterranean coast. The last ruler is Queen Cleopatra (ruled 51–30 bce). Egypt is then conquered by the Romans, bringing an end to the rule of ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt Around 3000 bce, the people of Egypt created the world’s first united state. It was governed by a king known as a pharaoh, who was believed to be the representative of the gods on Earth. For 3,000 years, Egyptians wore similar white linen clothing, spoke the same language, and followed a regular cycle of work, governed by the annual flooding of the River Nile. “Hail to you O Nile! … Come, O Nile, come and prosper!” Hymn to the Nile, c.2100 bce Coins showing Cleopatra US_040-041_Egypt.indd 40 06/06/2018 14:27 41 c.4500 bce First settlements Farming people settle in villages by the Nile. They grow wheat and barley, keep cattle and sheep, and make polished red pottery with blackened tops. This early culture is later called Badarian, after the site of El Badari, the remains of which were excavated in 1923. c.3300 bce Early writing Egyptians invent the world’s first writing system: hieroglyphics. It uses hundreds of picture signs, standing for ideas, words, and sounds. These are carved on stone or painted on sheets of papyrus, a writing material made from the reeds along the Nile. Early hieroglyphs on wooden labels c.3100 bce A kingdom united Egypt, previously two kingdoms, is united under one king. The first king we know of is called Narmer. He is shown in art as a warrior defeating enemies while wearing the crowns of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt. Narmer wears the white crown of Upper Egypt. Narmer wears the red crown of Lower Egypt. Thutmose I 2667–2648 bce Stepped pyramid Pharaoh Djoser, the first ruler of a period that historians call the Old Kingdom, builds the first pyramid. This is a royal tomb where the king’s body, preserved as a mummy, is thought to live on after death. Djoser’s pyramid has stepped rather than smooth sides and is Egypt’s first monument to be built out of stone. 1550–1525 bce New Kingdom Ahmose, ruler of Thebes, drives out the Hyksos and reunites Egypt, founding what would become known as the New Kingdom. Pharaohs are no longer buried in pyramids, but in hidden tombs in the Valley of the Kings, in the desert to the west of Thebes. The Theban god Amon-Re becomes chief Egyptian god. Depiction of Amon-Re 1504–1425 bce Egyptian Empire Thutmose I aggressively expands Egyptian rule into Nubia, a country that lies to the south of Egypt, as well as into areas of western Asia. The Egyptian Empire continues to grow under his successors, Thutmose II (1492–1479 bce) and Thutmose III (1479–1425 bce). 1352–1336 bce Sun worship Pharaoh Akhenaten makes sweeping changes to Egypt’s religion, closing down the temples to the gods and introducing worship of the Aten, a disk that represents the Sun. He builds a new capital called Akhetaten (modern-day El Amarna), with open-air temples for the worship of the Sun. 1336–1327 bce Tutankhamun Under the rule of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, the old religion is restored. After his death at the age of around 18, Tutankhamun is buried in a tomb filled with treasures. Discovered in 1922, the tomb of Tutankhamun is the only unrobbed Egyptian royal tomb ever found. US_040-041_Egypt.indd 41 17/07/2018 16:38 42 Ancient monuments For most of prehistory, people lived as nomadic hunter- gatherers and left behind little trace of their existence. It was only after people became settled farmers that they began to build monuments, such as tombs and temples. Most were simple structures, but some were built on an enormous scale that required hundreds of laborers—a sign they were built for powerful leaders. First temple People in Göbekli Tepe in Turkey build the world’s oldest religious structure, with more than 200 pillars arranged in 20 circles. Unusually, it seems to have been built by hunter-gatherers in the process of becoming farmers. 10,000–9000 bce Standing stones In Brittany in France, farming people set up more than 3,000 standing stones in long lines. Their purpose is a mystery, but it is possible that each one was placed in honor of a dead person. Dolmens In western Europe, people begin to build dolmens—tombs using three or more huge standing stones supporting a flat table- stone. These are covered with earth or rocks to form a mound called a barrow. Abu Simbel At Abu Simbel in southern Egypt, Pharaoh Rameses II has a great temple carved out of solid rock. It is dedicated to three gods. Colossal statues of the pharaoh sit outside and line the temple’s entrance hall. 126 4–1 244 bce Korean dolmens In Korea, people begin to build dolmen tombs. Some stand above ground, but others have an underground burial chamber. About 45,000 are built, giving Korea the world’s largest collection of dolmens. 70 0 b ce Great Pyramid of Cholula The people of Cholula in Mexico build a pyramid temple to worship the god Quetzalcoatl. Over the next thousand years, it is rebuilt on a progressively bigger scale, until it is the largest pyramid in the world. c.2 00 bce Sanchi Stupa At Sanchi in India, Emperor Ashoka builds a great stupa— a domed monument holding relics of the Buddha. Stupas are places of pilgrimage for Buddhists, who walk around them praying and meditating. c.250 bce c.45 00 –20 00 bce c.4000 bce US_042-043_Ancient_Monuments.indd 42 04/06/2018 15:13 43 Newgrange In Ireland, people use 200,000 tons of rock to build an enormous, mound-shaped tomb with a long passage leading to a central burial chamber. The passage is aligned with the midwinter sunrise, which lights up the burial chamber for 17 minutes. c.3 200 bce Stonehenge In Wiltshire, England, people arrange standing stones in circles. Some of the stones are hauled hundreds of miles from Wales. Their purpose is unclear, but certain stones align with the midwinter Sun, so Stonehenge may be used to establish calendar dates. First pyramid The Egyptian pharaoh Djoser builds the first pyramid as his tomb. It has stepped sides in six levels and is made of stone. The steps may have been seen as a stairway to the heavens for the pharoah. 2630–2611 bce Pyramids in Peru People at Caral in Peru build the first pyramids in South America. They have stepped sides like Djoser’s, but they serve as temples rather than tombs. They are arranged around a plaza in the middle of a great urban center. Pyramids and Sphinx At Giza, the largest of Egypt’s pyramids are built by the pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure. Khafre’s is guarded by the Great Sphinx, a colossal statue of a lion with the head of a pharaoh. 258 9–2 504 bceZiggurats In Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), rulers build stepped temples, called ziggurats. Each is seen as the home of the local god, whose statue is kept in a shrine at the very top. Monk’s Mound At the meeting of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois rivers, North Americans build Monk’s Mound, an immense, pyramid-shaped mound of soil and clay. Its base is as large as that of Egypt’s Great Pyramid. 900–1200 ce 1113 –115 0 ce Angkor Wat In Cambodia, King Suryavarman II constructs Angkor Wat, a Hindu temple containing his tomb. It takes around 30 years to build and today remains the world’s largest religious structure. Easter Island statues On Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, islanders carve 887 statues of their chieftains and ancestors. These have eyes of white coral with black obsidian pupils, and caps made of red stone. 1300–1500 ce c.26 00 bc e c.2100 bce c.4000 bce c.29 50–2500 bce US_042-043_Ancient_Monuments.indd 43 17/07/2018 16:38 The Great Sphinx The ancient Egyptians built sphinx statues to guard important areas such as tombs and temples. The most famous sphinx is the Great Sphinx of Giza, situated on the west bank of the River Nile. It was carved out of a huge outcrop of limestone that sticks up above the desert floor to guard the pyramid of Khafre in Giza. It was built 4,500 years ago, and is one of the largest and oldest statues in the world. The Sphinx has a human head, probably that of Pharaoh Khafre, and the body of a lion. US_044-045_Egyptian_architecture_DPS.indd 44 04/06/2018 15:13 US_044-045_Egyptian_architecture_DPS.indd 45 04/06/2018 15:13 46 Sharing stories Many of the earliest stories were composed as poems, as the rhythm and repetition of poetry made it easier for storytellers to learn them. With the invention of writing around 6,000 years ago, these stories began to be written down. Drama and, much later, the novel developed as new forms of storytelling. Today, books are stil l a popular format for reading stories, but they are also available digitally as e-books or online. 13th century 16th century13th–15th century 18871884 1623 1914–19181864 Elementary, my dear Watson Scottish writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle creates the world’s best-known fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes, as well as his sidekick, Dr. Watson, in his novel A Study in Scarlet. Scandinavian sagas Most Icelandic sagas are tales of historic voyages, battles, and kings of northern Europe. Some sagas tell of a legendary past full of dwarves and giants. As well as sagas, the Icelanders write down stories of Thor and Loki from Norse mythology. Monkey magic Journey to the West (also known as Monkey) is a Chinese novel based on the true story of a monk’s journey to bring Buddhist scrolls from India to China. The novel adds characters from Chinese mythology, such as the Monkey King. Medieval romances Tales of chivalrous knights going on quests and having heroic adventures are known in medieval Europe as romances. Old French and British legends of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table are written down as romances in the late Middle Ages. War poets A number of British and French soldiers fighting on the front lines in World War I write about their horrific experiences in haunting poetry. Sadly, many of them never come home from the war. Great American Novel US novelist Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn vividly portrays the American South and the language of its people. It is considered one of the “Great American Novels”—works that capture the spirit of America. First Folio Shakespeare adds many words to the English language and has a huge impact on the development of literature around the world. After his death, 36 of his plays are collected together for the first time in the First Folio. Science fiction Science and fantasy meet in French writer Jules Verne’s Journey to the Center of the Earth and, later, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1870). These stories are early masterpieces of what we now call science fiction. “Those who tell stories rule the world.” Hopi American Indian proverb In the story, the Monkey King had a magic staff that could shrink or grow in size. US_046-047_Literature.indd 46 06/06/2018 17:18 47 After 2100 bce 1812–1822 1997–2007 8th–15th century ce 186518th–19th century 1920s 5th century bce 1960s c.1000–1012 1818 1950s Ancient epics Societies of the ancient world produce long poems called epics. Performed by storytellers rather than written down, these epics celebrate a civilization’s culture through stories of great heroes. Once upon a time Brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm collect traditional German folk tales such as Snow White and Hansel and Gretel, in Children’s and Household Tales. The cruelty and violence of the original stories is toned down in future editions. Harry Potter British novelist J.K. Rowling’s seven books about Harry Potter and the wizard school of Hogwarts become a worldwide phenomenon. The novels have since been translated into around 80 languages and have sold more than 450 million copies. 1001 stories One Thousand and One Nights is a collection of popular stories from Arabia. Although they appear in Arabic folk tales, many of its well-known characters—Sinbad, Aladdin, and Ali Baba—will be added much later. Stream of consciousness A new style of writing, called “stream of consciousness” attempts to show fragments of thoughts and feelings as they pass through a character’s mind. Wonderland English clergyman Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland is full of nonsense speech and fantastical characters. It brings about a “Golden Age” in which children’s books focus on entertainment rather than education. Rise of the novel The novel becomes an extremely popular form of literature. Many European and American writers produce their novels in serial form. They are published in sections as monthly parts to make them more affordable to the public. Greek drama Early Greek plays involve only a single actor and a chorus (a group of performers who comment on the action). Playwrights add a second and then a third actor to the stage, laying the foundations for Western drama. Black voices African-Americans inspired by the Civil Rights Movement (see pages 290–291) write about the experiences of their people. The decade also sees the rise of female African-American poets. First novel The Tale of Genji by the Japanese lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu is maybe the world’s first novel. Written on sheets of paper pasted and folded together, it tells the story of “Shining Genji,” the son of an ancient Japanese emperor. Postcolonial writing As European powers lose hold of their international empires, writers from former colonies in Africa, South America, and Asia—particularly India—begin to write about the experience of being colonized. Gothic horror Mary Shelley writes Frankenstein, one of the greatest works of Gothic horror—a type of story that deals with the supernatural, ghosts, and haunted houses. One of the last examples of Gothic horror is Dracula (1897) by Bram Stoker. “Those who tell stories rule the world.” Hopi American Indian proverb The tale of Gilgamesh from Mesopotamia in modern-day Iraq is the oldest surviving epic. Ancient Greek actors wore masks to identify the character they played. The story of Aladdin and the genie was added by the French writer Antoine Galland in the 18th century. US_046-047_Literature.indd 47 06/06/2018 17:18 48 “I adore wearing gems, but not because they are mine. You can’t possess radiance, you can only admire it.” Elizabeth Taylor Actress and jewelry collector She ll b ead s Ear ly m ode rn h um ans in Afr ica an d th e M idd le E ast dril l ho les in s hel ls a nd stri ng the m t oge the r to ma ke nec kla ces an d bra cel ets . Th ey ma y w ear the m t o w ard off ev il or for ritu al c ere mo nie s. c.10 0,0 00 bce Eg yp tia n j ew el ry Th e a nc ien t E gy pt ian s l ov e br igh t je we lry . M en , w om en , an d c hil dr en al l w ea r c ol lar s, ea rri ng s, an d p en da nt s m ad e f ro m go ld or co pp er , se m ip re cio us st on es su ch as bl ue la pi s l az uli , a nd co lo re d gl as s b ea ds . c. 30 00 – 30 0 bc e C hi ne se ja de Ja de , a h ar d, g re en s to ne , is p riz ed m or e hi gh ly th an go ld in a nc ie nt C hi na , b ot h fo r i ts lo ok s an d be ca us e it is th ou gh t t o be a bl e to ke ep d em on s aw ay . c. 10 0 0 b c eS cy th ia n go ld T he S cy th ia ns a re n om ad s liv in g in C en tr al A si a w ho ca rr y th ei r w ea lth w ith th em . T he y w ea r j ew el ry an d d ec or at e th ei r a rm or an d c lo th in g w ith g ol d or na m en ts . T hi s co m b is to p p ed w ith a g ro up o f fig ht in g w ar rio rs . c. 70 0 b c e C el ti c to rc s A to rc is a h ea vy n ec k or a rm rin g of tw is te d m et al , u su al ly go ld o r b ro nz e (a y el lo w y- br ow n m ix o f c op pe r a nd ti n) . T he y ar e w or n by C el tic m en an d w om en o f h ig h ra nk . T he C el ts li ve in W es te rn E ur op e, fr om G er m an y ac ro ss to B rit ai n an d Ire la nd . c. 50 0 – 10 0 b c e Ro m an am be r Th e R om an s p lac e h igh va lue on am be r ( fo ss iliz ed pin e r es in) , w hic h t he y im po rt in lar ge qu an tit ies fro m th e s ho re s o f th e B alt ic Se a i n n or th ea ste rn Eu ro pe . It i s m ad e i nt o n ec kla ce s, rin gs , a nd am ule ts (c ha rm s to pr ot ec t t he w ea re r). c.1 00 ce Aztec j ewelry In Mexi co, Azte c noble s wear lip pendan ts and e ar and nos e plugs made o f obsidia n, a ver y hard volcani c rock. They al so wear ot her typ es of je welry decora ted with jade, turquoi se, she lls, and fea thers. 1325– 1521 Jewelry Humans have always worn jewelry, whether it is made from simple items such as shells and feathers, or expensive metals like gold and silver. Modern manufactured materials such as plastics have expanded the range even further. Throughout history, there have been many reasons for people to wear jewelry. Some societies and cultures have used jewelry to protect against evil, some to display wealth or rank, and some simply for decoration. US_048-049_Jewellery.indd 48 06/06/2018 14:27 49 Inca gold The Incas of Peru value gold, which they describe as “the sweat of the Sun.” Only the emperor and nobles, who are believed to be closest to the gods, are allowed to wear gold items such as this ceremonial mask. c.1400 Elizabethan pearls Portraits of Elizabeth I of England show her wearing long strings of white pearls, with individual pearls also sewn into her dresses. In many cultures, pearls symbolize purity and loyalty. 1558–1603 Royal diam ond During the French Revolution, the jewels of Q ueen M arie Antoinette of France are stolen. They include the rare blue Hope Diam ond, now displayed in the Sm ithsonian Institution. 1792 V ictorian love token T he V ictorians often use jew elry to send a secret m essage to a loved one. T he initial letters of the gem stones in this ring spell out the w ord “adore” (am ethyst, diam ond, opal, ruby, em erald). c.1880 A rt N ouveau Jew elry in the A rt N ouveau (“N ew A rt”) style is very p op ular in E urop e and the U S . It takes its insp iration from elem ents in nature, w ith long sw irling lines suggesting curling ivy or d ragonfly w ings. c.19 0 0 A rt D eco G eom etric designs are typical of the A rt D eco period, w ith sim ple, clean lines that reflect m odern industrial design. G em stones, particularly diam onds, are placed tightly together in platinum and w hite gold settings. 1920 s– 1930 s Star jewelry The jewelry collection of actress Elizabeth Taylor is sold for $116 million (£75 million). It includes the La Peregrina pearl, once owned by Mary I of England, and other items such as this emerald and diamond necklace. 2011 Costum e jew elry C olorful item s such as bracelets and brooches are m ade from glass, plastic, and hard acrylic, rather than precious stones. This is called “costum e jew elry,” and it becom es very popular because it is inexpensive. 1930s– 1950s Scarab Pectoral This decorative breastplate was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun, an Egyptian pharaoh. It is made of gold, inlaid with blue lapis lazuli, red carnelian, and turquoise. US_048-049_Jewellery.indd 49 06/06/2018 14:27 50 The story of sports The story of sports began thousands of years ago, when ancient people first started playing ball games. As time passed, new sports emerged, along with competitions and international events at which to play them. In modern times, sports are a major source of exercise, entertainment for spectators, and a way for mill ions of professional athletes worldwide to test their skills. Bowling beginnings Discoveries of ancient balls and pins in an Egyptian grave date bowling back 5,000 years. Modern tenpin bowling will begin in 1841 in the US. 3200 bce Ancient ball game The Mayans play a speedy ball game called pitz. The objective is to pass a rubber ball through a stone hoop without using hands or feet. The Aztecs, Incas, and Olmecs play similar games. c.2000 bce Soccer league The world’s first soccer league competition gets underway in England. Twelve teams take part, with Preston North End crowned champions at the end of the season. 1888 Table tennis During winters in Victorian England, houseguests make their own entertainment by turning their dining tables into mini tennis courts to play the first games of ping pong (also known as table tennis). Champagne corks are used as balls. 1880s Modern Olympics French aristocrat Pierre de Coubertin arranges a revival of the ancient Olympic Games. The competition is held in Athens, Greece with about 300 athletes from 14 countries. Events include swimming, cycling, weightlifting, wrestling, athletics, and the first marathon. 1896 World Series The two US baseball leagues—the American League and the National League—compete for the end-of-year championship for the first time in what is today known as the World Series. 1903 Tour de France The first Tour de France is held, lasting 19 days and covering 1,508 miles (2,428 km) along French roads. Although 60 competitors start the race, only 21 finish. The race was born to help boost the flagging sales of the cycling newspaper L’Auto. Football leagues The National Football League begins with a meeting in Canton, Ohio. A second football league, named the American Football League, gets underway 40 years later. In 1967, the champions of the two leagues face each other in the first annual Super Bowl. Beach volleyball This game is first played on the beach in Santa Monica, California. Today, the sport is played on beaches and artificial sand courts all around the world. 1903 19201920s US_050-051_Sports.indd 50 06/06/2018 14:28 51 Ancient Olympics At Olympia, a religious site in southwest Greece, the first recorded Olympic Games are held. They honor the protector of the people, Zeus. The Games are held every four years, with competitors often traveling long distances to participate. 776 bce Marathon message When a messenger named Pheidippides runs from the Battle of Marathon to Athens, Greece with news of a victory, the distance of 25 miles (40 km) becomes the measurement for a marathon. In 1921, the distance will be standardized as 26.2 miles (42.195 km). 490 bce Hand tennis European monks play the earliest version of tennis using their hands to hit the ball. By the 1870s, a similar game named Sphairistike is played in the UK with wooden rackets. Renamed tennis, the game’s first championship will be played at Wimbledon in 1877. 1100s ce Bicycle design Italian artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci sketches the first bicycle design, complete with pedals and a chain. Bicycles and competitive cycling sports do not develop until centuries later. 1490 Cricket The Marylebone Cricket Club in London introduces rules to turn a 16th-century game into the sport we now call cricket. 1788 Boxing gloves Wearing padded boxing gloves becomes compulsory for competitive fighters. However, similar attire had already been seen in ancient Greece, where fighters covered their hands in animal hide, and in ancient Rome, where gladiators used metal to really pack a punch! 1867 World Cup The biggest soccer competition gets underway in Uruguay. Thirteen teams contest it, with the host nation emerging as the champions. The tournament has been held every four years since, except when World War II twice caused its postponement. Paralympics The first Paralympic Games takes place in Rome, Italy. More than 400 athletes take part in events including archery, swimming, table tennis, and basketball. Women’s World Cup The first competition of the FIFA Women’s World Cup is held in China, with the US beating Norway 2-1 in the final. The tournament has been held every four years since. 1930 1960 1991 US_050-051_Sports.indd 51 06/06/2018 14:28 A nc ie nt G re ec e T he fi rs t g re at c iv ili za tio n in E ur o p e b eg an in an ci en t G re ec e. D ur in g th e hi g h p o in t o f G re ek c ul tu re (8 0 0 –3 0 0 b c e ), th e G re ek s in ve nt ed s ci en ce , p hi lo so p hy , t he at er , a nd d em o cr ac y. T he y in tr o d uc ed th e al p ha b et to E ur o p e, a nd th ei r ar t, ar ch ite ct ur e, an d li te ra tu re le ft a la st in g le g ac y. M in oa ns o f C re te O n th e is la nd o f C re te , t he M in oa n ci vi liz at io n b ui ld s la rg e pa la ce s an d tr ad es w ith th e G re ek m ai nl an d . B ul ls a re s ac re d an im al s in th ei r r el ig io n. Il ia d a nd O d ys se y Tw o ep ic p oe m s ar e co m p os ed , a cc o rd in g to tr ad iti on , b y H om er . T he Il ia d te lls o f a m yt hi ca l w ar a ga in st T ro y, a nd th e O dy ss ey is th e st or y of o ne h er o’ s jo ur ne y ho m e fr om th e w ar . M yc en ae an c iv ili za ti on O n th e G re ek m ai nl an d , t he M yc en ae an s b ui ld fo rt ifi ed p al ac es a t M yc en ae , T he b es , a nd A th en s. T he y ar e w ar lik e p eo p le , f ig ht in g fr om c ha rio ts a nd w ea rin g b ro nz e ar m or w ith b oa r- tu sk h el m et s. G re ek p ot te ry G re ek a rt is ts in C or in th b eg in to m ak e “b la ck fi gu re ” v as es , w ith fi gu re s pa in te d in b la ck o n th e re d o r w hi te ba ck gr ou nd o f t he v as e. A ro un d 5 25 b c e , A th en ia ns in ve nt th e “r ed fi gu re ” s ty le , w ith o ut lin es o f f ig ur es le ft in th e re d o f t he c la y w hi le th e ba ck gr ou nd is p ai nt ed b la ck . O ly m p ic G am es T he fi rs t r ec or d ed O ly m p ic G am es a re he ld a t O ly m p ia in h on or o f t he g od Z eu s. H el d o nc e ev er y 4 y ea rs , t he g am es g iv e th e G re ek s a co m m on d at in g sy st em . G re ek a rc hi te ct ur e T he G re ek s b eg in to b ui ld s to ne te m p le s, re p la ci ng e ar lie r t im b er b ui ld in gs . T w o m ai n st yl es e m er ge — st ur d y D or ic o n th e m ai nl an d , a nd th e m or e d el ic at e Io ni c in Io ni a (in p re se nt -d ay T ur ke y) . G re ek c ol on ie s T he G re ek s es ta b lis h ov er se as se tt le m en ts a ro un d th e M ed ite rr an ea n an d B la ck S ea s. T he se in cl ud e E m p or io n (E m p ur ie s) in S pa in , N ea p o lis (N ap le s) in It al y, M as si lia (M ar se ill es ) i n Fr an ce , S yr ac us e in S ic ily , N au cr at is in E gy pt , C yr en e in L ib ya , a nd O lb ia in th e U kr ai ne . A th en ia n d em oc ra cy T he A th en ia ns d riv e ou t H ip p ia s, a ty ra nt ru le r, an d es ta b lis h th e fir st d em oc ra cy . A ll ci tiz en s ca n vo te d ire ct ly on la w s — b ut w om en , s la ve s, an d fo re ig ne rs a re n ot co ns id er ed to b e ci tiz en s. c. 7 5 0 b c e c. 7 0 0 b c e c. 6 0 0 b c e 5 0 8 b c e F ro m c . 2 9 0 0 b c e Fr om c . 1 6 0 0 b c e 77 6 b c e 75 0 –5 0 0 b c e IO N IC D O R IC US_052-053_Ancient_Greece.indd 52 06/06/2018 16:48 G re ek d ra m a T he A th en ia n p la yw rig ht A es ch yl us w rit es h is fi rs t r ec or d ed tr ag ed y. P la ys ar e p er fo rm ed in h o no r o f D io ny su s, g od of w in e, a t f irs t i n th e m ar ke tp la ce a nd la te r i n an o p en -a ir th ea te r. A ca d em y T he p hi lo so p he r P la to fo un d s th e A ca d em y, a n ex cl us iv e “s ch oo l” w he re h e gi ve s le ct ur es a nd p os es p ro b le m s to b e so lv ed . A le xa nd er th e G re at U ni tin g G re ec e un d er h is ru le , A le xa nd er o f M ac ed on c on q ue rs th e P er si an E m p ire . A n ew a ge b eg in s, in w hi ch G re ek c iti es a re fo un d ed a s fa r e as t a s In d ia . 4 9 9 b c e 3 8 7 b c e 3 3 6 –3 2 3 b c e “I b el ie ve th at th e E ar th is v er y la rg e an d th at w e (G re ek s) … li ve in a sm al l p ar